Nutrition and Diet Therapy: NUTRITION AND DIET THERAPY Flashcards
1. What are some things that pregnant woman might crave if she has pica?
DIRT, CLAY, LAUNDRY STARCH, BAKIING SODA, OR RICE
2. What are 3 reasons a pregnant woman would be encouraged to consume adequate carbohydrates?
glucose for the baby, energy needs,
increase metabolic work load,
growth & tissue building
3. How many additional oz. of meat and how many additional cups of milk are necessary for to meet a pregnant woman’s protein needs?
1.5 MEAT, 2 EXTRA CUPS OF MILK
4. The diet of a vegan pregnant woman should be assessed regarding adequate intakes of which 2 minerals?
iron & calcium
. Why is folic acid added to enriched foods regarding a pregnant woman’s diet?
To decrease risk of neural tube defects in the embryo
6. What might be a dietary treatment for morning sickness?
1. AVOID FATTY FOODS 2. EAT FRUITS AND COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES IN SMALL , FREQUENT MEALS 3) CONSUME COLD FOODS RATHER THAN HOT FOODS 4. DRINK LIQUIDS BETWEEN RATHER THA WITH MEALS 5. EAT A HIGH PROTEIN SNACK AT BEDTIME
. Why do pregnant women sometimes develop gestational diabetes?
THE BODY INSULIN REQUIREMENT IS GREATLY INCREASED, PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE PREGNANCY BRINGS OUT THE DISEASE
. Preeclampsia is characterized by (signs and symptoms)_ headache and edema
headache and edema
. If a lactating woman has persistently low intakes of water-soluble vitamins, what might happen to her milk?
inadequate concentration of milk
. Why should pregnant women avoid soft cheeses and why should leftover foods as well as ready-to eat foods be cooked until steaming hot?
TO PREVENT LISTERIA
. For women with normal BMI’s pregnancy imposes a need for 450 additional kcals per day during the
Why should pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children avoid eating some types of fish? (due to hazard of contamination by what substance)?
. How can congenital toxoplasmosis be prevented in the pregnant woman?
COOK MEAT THROUGHLY
KEEP CAT INDOORS
WEAR GLOVES AND MASK WHEN CHANGING LITER BOX
ALWAYS WASH HANDS
. Breastfeeding mothers should be taught that newborn babies should nurse frequently and not sleep more than
4 hours at a time.
15. What age child should NOT be given low-fat milk routinely?
UNDER 1 YEAR
What are 3 foods that more commonly cause allergies in infants?
Eggs, Milk, Peanuts, Soybean, Wheat
. Name 3 foods that are not recommended for infants younger than 1 year of age.
Modified cow’s milk, egg white, wheat , citrus fruits, seafood, chocolate
By 1 year of age an infant should ----- his or her birth weight.
. Feeding an infant when hungry will help achieve the developmental task of _________.
In what order should new foods be introduced to an infant?
BREAST MILK OR FORMULA
The food that most often causes choking in infants is_
What are some appropriate foods for a 6-month-old?
READY TO EAT CEREAL
What would be some combinations of foods for the best nutrition for a school-aged child’s lunch?
PEANUT BUTTER AND JELLY
READY TO EAT CEREALS
What does breast milk contain that delays the infant’s satiety level until sufficient milk has been taken?
Colostrum is rich in what substances?
Why should infant foods be discarded if they have been heated and offered but not eaten?
Possible contamination with salivary enzymes and bacteria
Why should formula not be heated in a microwave? Heat may be unevenly distributed and continues to build even after the food has been removed from the oven
Heat may be unevenly distributed
MILK MIGHT BE TO HOT, POTENTIAL TO BURN INFANT
Why should honey not be given to an infant?
IF INGESTED THEY BECOME ACTIVE IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF INFANTS. UNRECOGNIZED IT CAN LEAD TO RESPIRATORY FAILURE.
. Why might an infant under 4 months spit out semisolid foods
STILL HAVE UP AND DOWN MOTION OF THE TONGUE FROM BREAST FEEDING
What is the most important thing to remember about food allergies?
CAN BE FATAL
A major contributor to the growing problem of obesity in children
LACK OF EXCERCISE
. The one proven treatment for colic—
. Juice for toddlers should be limited to _oz./day
.How can you tell if a breastfed infant is getting adequate intake?
AT LEAST 6 WET DIAPERS
4 BOWEL MOVEMENT
There is about a _% decrease in the amount of kcals needed for each decade past 40 years.
Major cause of tooth loss (edentulous) in the elderly---Periodontal Disease
The sense of taste diminishes with age as a result of----
The sense of smell declines
What aging changes can affect the danger of dehydration in the elderly?
Which nursing home clients are at greatest risk for nutrient deficiencies?
THE ONES WHO'S UNABLE TO FEED THEMSELVES
The mineral that is likely to be consumed at less than the RDA or AI levels by majority of adults—
-Dry mouth caused by decreased salivary secretions
. An elderly client should be assessed for kidney function before beginning what type of nutritional supplement?
A person learning to eat with dentures should try the steps in what order
LIQUIDS, SOFT FOOD, SOLIDS
Why are iron and vitamin B12 absorptions likely impaired in the elderly person?
LESS GASTRIC SECRETION
An early sign of dehydration in the elderly---
People over 80 should receive supplements of----- and------ to prevent hip fractures.
Name some recommendations that could bolster nutritional intake in independently living elderly person.
MILK BASE LIQUID SUPPLEMENTS
Best retained senses of taste in the older adult---
Sweet and Sour
Most effective control against botulism in the US—
PROPER HOME CANNING
Most effective means of preventing staphylococcal (bacterial) food poisoning is---
REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURE @ 41 DEGREES AND BELOW
What are some measures that may be taken to prevent salmonellosis?
1. Do not consume raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, or meat 2. Do not eat raw or unpasteurized milk or dairy products, 3. Do not consume any food that has not been properly cleaned, including fruits and vegetables.4. Proper handwashing.
Salmonella is spread by which contaminated foods? red meat, raw eggs, unpasteurized milk, ground beef and poultry.
red meat, raw eggs, unpasteurized milk, ground beef and poultry.
What is trichinosis?
The infestation of Trichinell spiralis, a parasitic roundworm, transmitted by eating raw or insufficiently cooked pork
. Define food infection—
Infection acquired through contact with food or water contaminated with disease producing microorganisms.
How is Hepatitis A transmitted?
CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER
Why is it important to identify the cause of food infections or food intoxications?
TO PREVENT SPREAD OF FOOD INFECTION, OR TOXICATION
. Name a food that is safe to eat that has mold and which part of the food is safe to eat?
Natural cheese, once removing the mold, the remainder of the cheese can be eaten.