NUTRITION AND DIET THERAPY

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STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 10-13
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1

1. What are some things that pregnant woman might crave if she has pica?

DIRT, CLAY, LAUNDRY STARCH, BAKIING SODA, OR RICE

2

2. What are 3 reasons a pregnant woman would be encouraged to consume adequate carbohydrates?

glucose for the baby, energy needs,
increase metabolic work load,
growth & tissue building

3

3. How many additional oz. of meat and how many additional cups of milk are necessary for to meet a pregnant woman’s protein needs?

1.5 MEAT, 2 EXTRA CUPS OF MILK

4

4. The diet of a vegan pregnant woman should be assessed regarding adequate intakes of which 2 minerals?

iron & calcium

5

. Why is folic acid added to enriched foods regarding a pregnant woman’s diet?

To decrease risk of neural tube defects in the embryo

6

6. What might be a dietary treatment for morning sickness?

1. AVOID FATTY FOODS 2. EAT FRUITS AND COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES IN SMALL , FREQUENT MEALS 3) CONSUME COLD FOODS RATHER THAN HOT FOODS 4. DRINK LIQUIDS BETWEEN RATHER THA WITH MEALS 5. EAT A HIGH PROTEIN SNACK AT BEDTIME

7

. Why do pregnant women sometimes develop gestational diabetes?

THE BODY INSULIN REQUIREMENT IS GREATLY INCREASED, PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE PREGNANCY BRINGS OUT THE DISEASE

8

. Preeclampsia is characterized by (signs and symptoms)_ headache and edema

headache and edema

9

. If a lactating woman has persistently low intakes of water-soluble vitamins, what might happen to her milk?

inadequate concentration of milk

10

. Why should pregnant women avoid soft cheeses and why should leftover foods as well as ready-to eat foods be cooked until steaming hot?

TO PREVENT LISTERIA

11

. For women with normal BMI’s pregnancy imposes a need for 450 additional kcals per day during the

THIRD TRIMESTER

12

Why should pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children avoid eating some types of fish? (due to hazard of contamination by what substance)?

MERCURY

13

. How can congenital toxoplasmosis be prevented in the pregnant woman?

COOK MEAT THROUGHLY
KEEP CAT INDOORS
WEAR GLOVES AND MASK WHEN CHANGING LITER BOX
ALWAYS WASH HANDS

14

. Breastfeeding mothers should be taught that newborn babies should nurse frequently and not sleep more than

4 hours at a time.

15

15. What age child should NOT be given low-fat milk routinely?

UNDER 1 YEAR

16

What are 3 foods that more commonly cause allergies in infants?

Eggs, Milk, Peanuts, Soybean, Wheat

17

. Name 3 foods that are not recommended for infants younger than 1 year of age.

Modified cow’s milk, egg white, wheat , citrus fruits, seafood, chocolate

18

By 1 year of age an infant should ----- his or her birth weight.

TRIPLE

19

. Feeding an infant when hungry will help achieve the developmental task of _________.

TRUST

20

In what order should new foods be introduced to an infant?

BREAST MILK OR FORMULA
CEREAL
VEGETABLES
FRUITS
MEAT

21

The food that most often causes choking in infants is_

Hot dogs

22

What are some appropriate foods for a 6-month-old?

CEREAL
FINGER FOODS
CARROTS STICKE
READY TO EAT CEREAL

23

What would be some combinations of foods for the best nutrition for a school-aged child’s lunch?

PEANUT BUTTER AND JELLY
FRUITS
READY TO EAT CEREALS

24

What does breast milk contain that delays the infant’s satiety level until sufficient milk has been taken?

FAT

25

Colostrum is rich in what substances?

IMMUNO GLOBULINS

26

Why should infant foods be discarded if they have been heated and offered but not eaten?

Possible contamination with salivary enzymes and bacteria

27

Why should formula not be heated in a microwave? Heat may be unevenly distributed and continues to build even after the food has been removed from the oven

Heat may be unevenly distributed
MILK MIGHT BE TO HOT, POTENTIAL TO BURN INFANT

28

Why should honey not be given to an infant?

BOTULISM SPORES,
IF INGESTED THEY BECOME ACTIVE IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF INFANTS. UNRECOGNIZED IT CAN LEAD TO RESPIRATORY FAILURE.

29

. Why might an infant under 4 months spit out semisolid foods

STILL HAVE UP AND DOWN MOTION OF THE TONGUE FROM BREAST FEEDING

30

What is the most important thing to remember about food allergies?

CAN BE FATAL

31

A major contributor to the growing problem of obesity in children

LACK OF EXCERCISE

32

. The one proven treatment for colic—

Time

33

. Juice for toddlers should be limited to _oz./day

6

34

.How can you tell if a breastfed infant is getting adequate intake?

AT LEAST 6 WET DIAPERS
4 BOWEL MOVEMENT

35

There is about a _% decrease in the amount of kcals needed for each decade past 40 years.

5%

36

Major cause of tooth loss (edentulous) in the elderly---Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease

37

The sense of taste diminishes with age as a result of----

The sense of smell declines

38

What aging changes can affect the danger of dehydration in the elderly?

CONFUSION

39

Which nursing home clients are at greatest risk for nutrient deficiencies?

THE ONES WHO'S UNABLE TO FEED THEMSELVES

40

The mineral that is likely to be consumed at less than the RDA or AI levels by majority of adults—

Calcium

41

DEFINE: Xerostomia

-Dry mouth caused by decreased salivary secretions

42

. An elderly client should be assessed for kidney function before beginning what type of nutritional supplement?

Protein

43

A person learning to eat with dentures should try the steps in what order

LIQUIDS, SOFT FOOD, SOLIDS

44

Why are iron and vitamin B12 absorptions likely impaired in the elderly person?

LESS GASTRIC SECRETION

45

An early sign of dehydration in the elderly---

Confusion

46

People over 80 should receive supplements of----- and------ to prevent hip fractures.

calcium,vitamin D

47

Name some recommendations that could bolster nutritional intake in independently living elderly person.

MILK BASE LIQUID SUPPLEMENTS

48

Best retained senses of taste in the older adult---

Sweet and Sour

49

Most effective control against botulism in the US—

PROPER HOME CANNING

50

Most effective means of preventing staphylococcal (bacterial) food poisoning is---

PROPER HYGIENE
REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURE @ 41 DEGREES AND BELOW

51

What are some measures that may be taken to prevent salmonellosis?

1. Do not consume raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, or meat 2. Do not eat raw or unpasteurized milk or dairy products, 3. Do not consume any food that has not been properly cleaned, including fruits and vegetables.4. Proper handwashing.

52

Salmonella is spread by which contaminated foods? red meat, raw eggs, unpasteurized milk, ground beef and poultry.

red meat, raw eggs, unpasteurized milk, ground beef and poultry.

53

What is trichinosis?

The infestation of Trichinell spiralis, a parasitic roundworm, transmitted by eating raw or insufficiently cooked pork

54

. Define food infection—

Infection acquired through contact with food or water contaminated with disease producing microorganisms.

55

How is Hepatitis A transmitted?

CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER

56

Why is it important to identify the cause of food infections or food intoxications?

TO PREVENT SPREAD OF FOOD INFECTION, OR TOXICATION

57

. Name a food that is safe to eat that has mold and which part of the food is safe to eat?

Natural cheese, once removing the mold, the remainder of the cheese can be eaten.