CHAPTER 26 & 27 FINAL REVIEW Flashcards


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1

Where do sperm aquire their motility ?

Epididymis

2

This gland is located just inferior to urinary bladder?

Prostate gland

3

The ureter is anchored to the anterior body wall by?

The round ligament

4

Which does not contribute fluid to semen?

Epididymis

5

Which contains the urethra?

corpus spongiosum

6

Spermatogenesis requires which hormones?

LH

FSH

Testosterone

7

In which sinus is milk stored?

Lactiferous Sinuses

8

Follicle cells are part of?

Primordial Follicles

9

What is the posterior portion of the uterus called?

Fundus

10

What has fimbrea?

Uterin tubes

11

Where is sperm stored?

Epididymis synthesized in testes

12

The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.

T/F

F

13

Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.

T/F

T

14

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.

T/F

T

15

The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.

T/F

T

16

Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems.

T/F

F

17

The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.

T/F

T

18

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.

T/F

F

19

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.

T/F

T

20

The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.

T/F

F

21

The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.

T/F

T

22

Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.

T/F

F

23

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.

T/F

T

24

Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.

T/F

F

25

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.

T/F

F

26

Urea is reabsorbed in the nephron loop.

T/F

F

27

Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.

T/F

T

28

The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.

T/F

F

29

An excessive urine output is called anuria.

T/F

F

30

Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.

T/F

T

31

The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.

T/F

F

32

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.

T/F

T

33

The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.

T/F

F

34

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.

T/F

T

35

Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.

T/F

T

36

Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.

T/F

F

37

Fetal kidneys have the primary responsibility of clearing wastes from the fetal blood.

T/F

F

38

Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?

A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT.

39

What is the best explanation for the microvilli on the apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)?

They increase the surface area and allow for a greater volume of filtrate components to be reabsorbed.

40

The thin segment of the nephron loop's descending limb ________.

aids in the passive movement of water out of the tubule

41

The relatively long half-life of lipid soluble hormones (steroid hormones) compared to water soluble hormones is due in part to the way that these hormones are passed into the filtrate from the glomerular capillaries. From the list below select the best explanation for why lipid soluble (steroid) hormones have a relatively long half-life.

Steroid hormones travel in the plasma on large transport proteins that cannon pass through the filtration membrane.

42

The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?

damage to the filtration membrane

43

Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does not explain the high pressure within the glomerular capillaries.

The volume of plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole.

44

Cells and transport proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration.

increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration

45

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will go up.

46

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

47

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

48

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decrease (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will go up.

49

If the glomerular mesangial cells contract, reducing the overall surface area of the glomerulus which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will be lowered.

50

If blood pressure drops very low (MAP is below 80mmHg) renin enzyme will be secreted by granular cells. Which of the following is not likely to occur?

Kidney perfusion will increase

51

Which of the following statements best describes the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic controls of the kidney?

Extrinsic controls have the greatest effect on systemic blood pressure while intrinsic control have a greater effect on GFR.

52

Reabsorption of nutrients like glucose and amino acids takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) via cotransporters that utilize secondary active transport. Which of the following would stop the reabsorption of glucose at the apical surface of the cells in the PCT?

loss of Na+-K+ ATPase in the basolateral surface of PCT cells

53

Bulk flow of nutrients, ions and water into the peritubular capillaries is the result of all of the following except one. Select the answer below that does not describe a cause of bulk flow of fluids into the peritubular capillaries.

leaky tight junctions of peritubular capillary's endothelium

54

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

nephron loop

55

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

a vasa recta

56

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

increase in the production of ADH

57

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

transitional

58

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

59

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

60

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

arcuate

61

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

is drained by an efferent arteriole

62

The descending limb of the nephron loop ________.

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

63

Select the correct statement about the ureters.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

64

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

65

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

66

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.

nephron

67

Which of the following does not describe the justaglomerular complex?

Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone.

68

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

69

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

the stretching of the bladder wall

70

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

renal fascia

71

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

osmosis

72

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

73

The macula densa cells respond to ________.

changes in Na+ content of the filtrate

74

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

creatinine

75

The fluid in glomerular capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

plasma protein

76

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

inhibits the release of ADH

77

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

78

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.

slightly higher than water

79

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1. major calyx

2. minor calyx

3. nephron

4. urethra

5. ureter

6. collecting duct

3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

80

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

81

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease.

82

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?

podocyte cells

83

Which of the following is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?

It is a purely passive transport process.

84

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

secondary active transport

85

Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

86

Which of the following is the correct sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus?

pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

87

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

88

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

89

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.

appear in the urine

90

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

91

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

92

Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?

by secreting sodium ions

93

In the ascending limb of the nephron loop the ________.

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

94

Select the correct statement about urinary system development.

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

95

What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

96

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

97

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?

ADH

98

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

99

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

angiotensin II and aldosterone

100

Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.

T/F

F

101

Sexually transmitted infections are the most important cause of reproductive disorders.

T/F

T

102

The testis is divided into seminiferous tubules which contain the lobules that produce sperm and the ejaculatory duct that allows the sperm to be ejected from the body.

T/F

F

103

The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.

T/F

T

104

A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.

T/F

F

105

The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix.

T/F

T

106

The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen.

T/F

F

107

Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle.

T/F

F

108

The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.

T/F

F

109

Female orgasm is required for conception.

T/F

F

110

The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts.

T/F

T

111

The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.

T/F

F

112

The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase.

F

113

The testes are innervated by the sympathetic division of the ANS only.

T/F

F

114

The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium.

T/F

T

115

A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster

T/F

T

116

The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.

T/F

T

117

The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.

T/F

T

118

The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.

T/F

F

119

Sperm are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis.

T/F

F

120

Sperm from the male parent determines the sex of the child.

T/F

T

121

Extremely stressful physical activity in young females can result in excessive bone mass due to large amounts of estrogen production.

T/F

F

122

All of the following things occur during meiosis I with the exception of one thing. Select the statement below that does not occur during meiosis I.

The sister chromatids are separated from each other.

123

Which of the following statements is true of metaphase I of meiosis I?

Homologous pairs align randomly on the spindle equator with a mix of paternal and maternal homologs destined for each of the daughter cells.

124

Select the statement below that is false.

Meiosis occurs only in stem cells while mitosis can occur in any of the body's cells.

125

Select the statement which is true regarding independent assortment.

It is a significant source of genetic variation only during meiosis I.

126

Select the statement which is false.

Crossing over is a source of genetic variability seen in meiosis while independent assortment is a source of genetic variability seen in mitosis.

127

All but one of the following statements are true regarding the differences between early and late spermatids. Select the answer below that does not reflect a difference between early and late spermatids.

Early spermatids have not undergone meiosis and are still diploid.

128

During spermiogenesis ________.

the acrosome migrates towards the anterior end of the spermatid because its hydrolytic enzymes will be needed for penetration when the sperm contacts the egg during fertilization

129

All but one of the events described below occur during spermiogenesis. Select the event that does not occur during spermiogenesis.

Mitochondrial DNA is packaged into the nucleus to be delivered to the egg during fertilization.

130

All but one of the following statements is true with regard to the blood testis barrier. Select the one statement that is false.

The barrier is made up of astrocytes that surround blood vessels in the testis.

131

All but one of the following statements is true of uterine function. Select the statement that is not true of uterine function.

The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization.

132

The oral contraceptive pill, informally called "the pill" contains an estrogen and progesterone or a synthetic mimic of this hormone. The combination of these two hormones taken in the pill and circulating in the blood work because.

The hormones cause the woman's body to mimic the activities of a pregnancy and disrupt the ovarian cycle, preventing ovulation.

133

All but one of the following statements describes the necessity of the blood testis barrier. Select the one statement that does not describe a necessity of the blood testis barrier.

Sperm can only be produced at temperatures lower than body temperature. Inflammation in the testis could raise the temperature too high to produce sperm.

134

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?

They regulate the temperature of the testes.

135

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.

peristaltic contractions

136

The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.

failure of the testis to make their normal decent

137

Which of the following glands are responsible for 70% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal vesicles

138

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

GnRH

139

The genetic determinate for male reproductive development is ________.

the SRY gene

140

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.

fallopian tubes

141

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

Twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur.

142

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.

they have the same number of chromosomes

143

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.

meiosis

144

Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.

fallopian tubes

145

Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

labia majora

146

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.

genetically identical

147

How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?

They move away from the pelvic cavity.

148

Effects of estrogen include ________.

growth of the breasts at puberty

149

Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.

preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

150

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.

interstitial endocrine cells

151

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?

Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.

152

Erection of the penis results from ________.

a parasympathetic reflex

153

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

corpus luteum

154

Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?

serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

155

Select the correct statement about male sexual response.

Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.

156

Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?

stimulates mammary gland development

157

Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?

inhibin

158

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

progesterone levels are at their highest

159

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

160

Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?

thalamus

161

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

162

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

163

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

164

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?

The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.

165

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

166

Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.

167

Spermatogenesis ________.

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

168

Which hormone is the necessary trigger for ovulation to occur?

LH

169

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ________.

involves FSH and LH release

170

Select the correct statement about testosterone control.

GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

171

Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?

The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

172

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.

High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

173

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?

Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.

174

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?

Each spermatid forms two sperm.

175

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.

be unable to produce viable sperm

176

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?

Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

177

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.

decreased testosterone secretion

178

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

179

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?

regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

180

The duct system of the male reproductive system includes all but which of the following?

corpus spongiosum

181

Prostate cancer is ________.

sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient

182

What is the purpose of the uterus?

Receive, retain, and nourish developing embryo

183

What does the Corpus Luteum do?

Secretes progesterone and some estrogen

184

When is the menstral phase?

Day 1-5 (low estrogen and progesterone in this phase)

*on day 5 growing follicles produce more estrogen

185

When is the proliferative (pre-ovulatory) phase?

Day 6-14

endometrium rebuilds itself during this time

on day 14 ovulation happens in response to sudden increase of LH

186

When is the secretory (post-ovulatory) phase?

Days 15-28

endometrium prepares for an embryo to implant. Increased progesterone from the corpus luteum

187

What do Myoid cells do?

Contract to push sperm out

188

What do interstitial cells (Leydig Cells) produce?

Androgens

189

When does crossover happen?

In prophase I

190

Where does cell division take place?

Telephase 1

191

What forms the blood testis barrier?

Sertoli cells (sustentacular cell)

192

What secretes 60% of of the volume of semen?

Seminal Vessicles

193

What produces thick clear mucus prior to ejaculation and lubricates the urethra?

Cowpers gladn (bulbo-urethral gland)

194

Nephrons are found mostly in?

Cortex

195

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

196

What makes up the three layers of the filtration membrane?

Capillary endothelium

Basement membrane

Foot processes of podocytes

197

99% of reabsorption takes place where?

Proximal convoluted tubules

198

What are the only functions of the juxtamedullary nephrons?

Concentrate urine (water gets reabsorbed)