198 notecards = 50 pages (4 cards per page)
Where do sperm aquire their motility ?
This gland is located just inferior to urinary bladder?
The ureter is anchored to the anterior body wall by?
The round ligament
Which does not contribute fluid to semen?
Which contains the urethra?
Spermatogenesis requires which hormones?
In which sinus is milk stored?
Follicle cells are part of?
What is the posterior portion of the uterus called?
What has fimbrea?
Where is sperm stored?
Epididymis synthesized in testes
The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.
Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.
The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.
The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.
Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems.
The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.
Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.
The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.
The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.
Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.
Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.
Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.
The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
Urea is reabsorbed in the nephron loop.
Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.
The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.
An excessive urine output is called anuria.
Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.
The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.
Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.
The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.
Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.
Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.
Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.
Fetal kidneys have the primary responsibility of clearing wastes from the fetal blood.
Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?
A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT.
What is the best explanation for the microvilli on the apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)?
They increase the surface area and allow for a greater volume of filtrate components to be reabsorbed.
The thin segment of the nephron loop's descending limb ________.
aids in the passive movement of water out of the tubule
The relatively long half-life of lipid soluble hormones (steroid hormones) compared to water soluble hormones is due in part to the way that these hormones are passed into the filtrate from the glomerular capillaries. From the list below select the best explanation for why lipid soluble (steroid) hormones have a relatively long half-life.
Steroid hormones travel in the plasma on large transport proteins that cannon pass through the filtration membrane.
The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?
damage to the filtration membrane
Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does not explain the high pressure within the glomerular capillaries.
The volume of plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole.
Cells and transport proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration.
increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration
If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will go up.
If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will decrease.
If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will decrease.
If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decrease (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will go up.
If the glomerular mesangial cells contract, reducing the overall surface area of the glomerulus which of the following is not likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will be lowered.
If blood pressure drops very low (MAP is below 80mmHg) renin enzyme will be secreted by granular cells. Which of the following is not likely to occur?
Kidney perfusion will increase
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic controls of the kidney?
Extrinsic controls have the greatest effect on systemic blood pressure while intrinsic control have a greater effect on GFR.
Reabsorption of nutrients like glucose and amino acids takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) via cotransporters that utilize secondary active transport. Which of the following would stop the reabsorption of glucose at the apical surface of the cells in the PCT?
loss of Na+-K+ ATPase in the basolateral surface of PCT cells
Bulk flow of nutrients, ions and water into the peritubular capillaries is the result of all of the following except one. Select the answer below that does not describe a cause of bulk flow of fluids into the peritubular capillaries.
leaky tight junctions of peritubular capillary's endothelium
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
a vasa recta
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
by a decrease in the blood pressure
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
is drained by an efferent arteriole
The descending limb of the nephron loop ________.
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
Which of the following does not describe the justaglomerular complex?
Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone.
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
changes in Na+ content of the filtrate
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The fluid in glomerular capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
slightly higher than water
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
6. collecting duct
3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?
Which of the following is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?
It is a purely passive transport process.
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
secondary active transport
Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
Which of the following is the correct sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus?
pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.
appear in the urine
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
by secreting sodium ions
In the ascending limb of the nephron loop the ________.
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
angiotensin II and aldosterone
Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.
Sexually transmitted infections are the most important cause of reproductive disorders.
The testis is divided into seminiferous tubules which contain the lobules that produce sperm and the ejaculatory duct that allows the sperm to be ejected from the body.
The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.
A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix.
The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen.
Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle.
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.
Female orgasm is required for conception.
The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts.
The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.
The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase.
The testes are innervated by the sympathetic division of the ANS only.
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium.
A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster
The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.
The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.
The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.
Sperm are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
Sperm from the male parent determines the sex of the child.
Extremely stressful physical activity in young females can result in excessive bone mass due to large amounts of estrogen production.
All of the following things occur during meiosis I with the exception of one thing. Select the statement below that does not occur during meiosis I.
The sister chromatids are separated from each other.
Which of the following statements is true of metaphase I of meiosis I?
Homologous pairs align randomly on the spindle equator with a mix of paternal and maternal homologs destined for each of the daughter cells.
Select the statement below that is false.
Meiosis occurs only in stem cells while mitosis can occur in any of the body's cells.
Select the statement which is true regarding independent assortment.
It is a significant source of genetic variation only during meiosis I.
Select the statement which is false.
Crossing over is a source of genetic variability seen in meiosis while independent assortment is a source of genetic variability seen in mitosis.
All but one of the following statements are true regarding the differences between early and late spermatids. Select the answer below that does not reflect a difference between early and late spermatids.
Early spermatids have not undergone meiosis and are still diploid.
During spermiogenesis ________.
the acrosome migrates towards the anterior end of the spermatid because its hydrolytic enzymes will be needed for penetration when the sperm contacts the egg during fertilization
All but one of the events described below occur during spermiogenesis. Select the event that does not occur during spermiogenesis.
Mitochondrial DNA is packaged into the nucleus to be delivered to the egg during fertilization.
All but one of the following statements is true with regard to the blood testis barrier. Select the one statement that is false.
The barrier is made up of astrocytes that surround blood vessels in the testis.
All but one of the following statements is true of uterine function. Select the statement that is not true of uterine function.
The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization.
The oral contraceptive pill, informally called "the pill" contains an estrogen and progesterone or a synthetic mimic of this hormone. The combination of these two hormones taken in the pill and circulating in the blood work because.
The hormones cause the woman's body to mimic the activities of a pregnancy and disrupt the ovarian cycle, preventing ovulation.
All but one of the following statements describes the necessity of the blood testis barrier. Select the one statement that does not describe a necessity of the blood testis barrier.
Sperm can only be produced at temperatures lower than body temperature. Inflammation in the testis could raise the temperature too high to produce sperm.
The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
They regulate the temperature of the testes.
The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
failure of the testis to make their normal decent
Which of the following glands are responsible for 70% of the synthesis of semen?
the seminal vesicles
Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
The genetic determinate for male reproductive development is ________.
the SRY gene
The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
Twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur.
Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
they have the same number of chromosomes
The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?
In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
They move away from the pelvic cavity.
Effects of estrogen include ________.
growth of the breasts at puberty
Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.
preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
interstitial endocrine cells
Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
Erection of the penis results from ________.
a parasympathetic reflex
Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
stimulates mammary gland development
Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?
During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
progesterone levels are at their highest
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?
Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Which hormone is the necessary trigger for ovulation to occur?
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ________.
involves FSH and LH release
Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary
Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
Each spermatid forms two sperm.
A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
be unable to produce viable sperm
Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
decreased testosterone secretion
All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
The duct system of the male reproductive system includes all but which of the following?
Prostate cancer is ________.
sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
What is the purpose of the uterus?
Receive, retain, and nourish developing embryo
What does the Corpus Luteum do?
Secretes progesterone and some estrogen
When is the menstral phase?
Day 1-5 (low estrogen and progesterone in this phase)
*on day 5 growing follicles produce more estrogen
When is the proliferative (pre-ovulatory) phase?
endometrium rebuilds itself during this time
on day 14 ovulation happens in response to sudden increase of LH
When is the secretory (post-ovulatory) phase?
endometrium prepares for an embryo to implant. Increased progesterone from the corpus luteum
What do Myoid cells do?
Contract to push sperm out
What do interstitial cells (Leydig Cells) produce?
When does crossover happen?
In prophase I
Where does cell division take place?
What forms the blood testis barrier?
Sertoli cells (sustentacular cell)
What secretes 60% of of the volume of semen?
What produces thick clear mucus prior to ejaculation and lubricates the urethra?
Cowpers gladn (bulbo-urethral gland)
Nephrons are found mostly in?
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What makes up the three layers of the filtration membrane?
Foot processes of podocytes
99% of reabsorption takes place where?
Proximal convoluted tubules
What are the only functions of the juxtamedullary nephrons?
Concentrate urine (water gets reabsorbed)