Unskilled laborer contracted to work for an employer for a fixed period of time, typically 3-7 years, in exchange for transportation, food, clothing, lodging, & other necessities. Led a hard life in the early days of the Chesapeake settlements Looks forward to becoming free & acquiring land of their own after completing their term of servitude.
England->Coast of Africa->West Indies->back to England. Infamously profitable, though small in relation to colonial commerce.
Dominion of New England
Created in 1686 by royal authority. Designed to promote efficiency in the administrations of the English Navigation Laws. Failed because the area it encompassed (Delaware River->Penobscot Bay) was too large for a single governor, Sir Edmund Andros, to manage
1630s, About 70,000 refugees left England, mostly Puritans (about 20,000). Attracted to the warm & fertile West Indies
1607, The 1st permanent English colony in America where England's King James I charted the Virginia Company
1693, Established a democratic government controlled by substantial citizens. Like modern Constitution. Many essential features adopted by Connecticut & other states for their constitutions
Led Bacon's Rebellion. Died after burning Jamestown.
New England Confederation
Meeting held in Boston in 1643 where delegates from Connecticut, New Haven, Massachusetts Bay, & Plymouth Colony met & formed the United Colonies of New England (New England Confederation). Soon fell apart due to disagreement, but was a step toward formal cooperation among the colonies
1676, Rebellion of farmers to protest the royal governor's (Sir William Berkeley) lenient, let's-be-nice-to-the-Natives policy. Suppressed after Bacon's death. Led to limited power of the royal governor.
A religious revival that swept through the colonies from the 1720s-1740s. Preachers challenged "cold" message of churches & stirred congregations w/ powerful, emotive sermons. Encouraged a sense of social equality & a questions of authority
Economic policy practice by most European countries in the 17th century. Based off the belief that wealth=power. Minimized trade w/ outsiders & maximized trade w/in their colonies. America supplied Britain w/ raw goods, Britain manufactured it & sent it back for Americans to buy
Influenced by the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, took scientific reasoning & applied it to human nature, society, & religion. Emphasis upon liberty, democracy, republicanism, & religious tolerance. Culmination of drafting the US Declaration of Independence
1712, A series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade b/w England & its colonies. The goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England & stop colonial trade w/ Netherlands, France, & other European countries
Undocumented, though long-standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep American colonies obedient to Great Britain. 1067-1763, allowed the enforcement of trade relations laws to be lenient
French & Indian War
1754-1763, War b/w Great Britain & France in North America. World-wide conflict 1756, known as the Seven Years' War. The beginning of open hostilities b/w America & Great Britain.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Closed off the frontier to colonial expansion.
American victory. Turning point in the war. Convinced France to enter as ally to US.
1766, A declaration by British Parliament. Stated that Parliament's authority was the SAME in the Americas as in Great Britain. Asserted Parliament's authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.
1765, A direct tax impose by the British Parliament that required many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London and carry an embossed revenue stamp.
Declaration of Independence
Document that officially declared the 13 colonies as free from England's control. Came from 2nd Continental Congress
First Continental Congress
1774, Meeting of colonial representatives in response to the Intolerable Acts. Known for the Declaration of Rights
**Second Continental Congress
Reconvening of delegates after the Revolution came into full swing that adopted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law that divided up land in the old northwest to be sold to pay off the national debt and set aside area of each township for public education.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Stated how territories would become states and admitted to the Union as well as forbidding slavery in the Old Northwest.
Uprising led by Daniel Shays of backcoutry farmers who demanded lower taxes and a more efficient currency. Showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and the need for a stronger central government.
Sons of Liberty
Rebellious group headed by Samuel Adams that orchestrated the Boston Tea Party and spread anti-British propaganda.
Committees of Correspondence
Organizations established by Samuel Adams of Massachusetts that spread anti-British sentiment and openly endorsed rebellion.
Election of 1800
Also called the Revolution of 1800, the peaceful transfer of power from the federalists to Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans.
Strict & Loose Constructionism
Strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution, the former favored by Anti-federalists and Democratic Republicans while the latter favored by the federalists.
1787-1816, Formed by Hamilton. Was committed to being fiscally sound & nationalistic. Called for good relations w/ England, a national bank, and tariffs. Began the 2-party system. Vanished because they were too committed to the upper classes to win votes of ordinary citizens
Opposed the creations of a stronger federal government. Opposed ratification of the constitution. Worried that the position of President might evolve into a monarch. Wanted state government to have more power.
Hamilton's Financial Program
Secretary of Treasury Hamilton's creation of a financial plan that would create a national bank, pay off war debts, & put a tariff on exported goods that would hopefully encourage industrialization in America.
A treaty b/w the US & Great Britain that is credited for averting war, resolving issues remaining from the Treaty of Paris, & allowing ten or more years of mostly peaceful trade b/w the US& Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars of 1793.
Established intentions of friendship b/w the US & Spain. Defined the boundaries of the US w/ the Spanish colonies. Guaranteed the US navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
1794, Pennsylvania, A citizen revolt against a 1791 tax on whiskey. The reaction demonstrated the determination of the US to enforce Federal Laws. Militias of several states were used to end the insurrection.
A diplomatic event that strained relations b/w France & the US. Led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War
Alien & Sedition Acts
1798, Four bills passed by the Federalists. Signed into law by President John Adams. Designed to protect the US from enemy aliens & prevent seditious attacks from weakening government. Denounced as being unconstitutional & designed to stifle criticism of the administration, & infringing on the right of the states to act in these areas. Became a major political issue in the elections of 1798 & 1800
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Drafted in response to the Alien & Sedition Acts. Stated that if Congress passed a law that was seen unconstitutional, states would not follow or abide by it.
1793 Proclamation of Neutrality
A proclamation in which the US declared itself to be neutral b/w war & disputes of Britain & France.
1803, Land bought from Napoleon for $15 million. Doubled the size of the US & made the westward movement possible.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Admitted Maine as free and Missouri as slave state. Stated that any part of the Louisiana Territory north of 36 degree and 30 minutes would be non slave territory.
1823, James Monroe's speech to Congress where he said that the America's were no longer open to colonization by European powers.
All candidates were Republicans, marking the official demise of the Federalists. William Crawford,Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, & John Q Adams. Jackson received more votes that the others. None won the majority. House of Rep chose John Q Adams
Clay was named Secretary of State under President Adams after influencing the House of Rep to choose Adams.
Tariff of Abominations
1828, Record-high tariff. Aimed to protect American industries. Hated by the agricultural South. Led to the Nullification Crisis.
1832, South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of Abominations. Influenced by John Calhoun's "South Carolinas Exposition". Exposed states' rights issues.
The American System
Clay's proposed legislative program calling for internal improvements, a protective tariff, & a national bank. The goal was economic prosperity & national unity.
1801-1835, Time period of Supreme Court where John Marshall was Chief Justice & made landmark decisions. The Supreme Court established judicial review & federal supremacy over states' power.
An ex-slave who led a failed slave rebellion consisting of 9,000 freed & enslaved blacks in Charleston, SC. Was scheduled for July 1822, but word spread & Denmark & other leaders were executed.
"The Prophet", August 21, 1831; A slave who led a rebellion against slave owners. Resulted in the deaths of 55 white men, women, & children to spread terror & alarm among whites. On Nov 5, 1831 he was tried, convicted, & sentenced to death.
A slave who planned to lead a large slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia on August 30, 1800. Failed when his plan was let out when two slaves told their masters of the plan. Prosser & 25 other slaves were hanged.
Created under Andrew Jackson. Reward to political supporters w/ public office. An important element of the emerging 2-party order.
Responded to the resolution to temporarily suspend surveying of public lands in the West. Widened to cover a variety of national issues including tariffs, slavery, internal improvements, & the nature of the Union.
Tariff Act of 1832
Pared away the worst "abominations" of 1828. Was still frankly protective & fell short of meeting Southern demands. Needed to get 2/3 vote to nullify. Made SC hopeful.
1834, A reaction to the authoritarian policies of Andrew Jackson. Were supporters of the American System & descendants of the old Federalist Party. Efforts to unify were slow & unsuccessful. Split when the issue of slavery was brought up.
Party during administration of John Q Adams. Anti-Jackson. Led by Clay. Platform was Clay's American System of nationally financed improvements to help the economy. Intended to promote unity & harmony. Dissolved in 1834 by Jackson's presidential victory
One of the few national political parties that favored strong state's rights and consisted mainly of southern separatists during the Antebellum period.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Proposed by Clay as a resolution to the Nullification Crisis. Adopted to gradually reduce the rates after Southerners objected to the protectionism found in the Tariff of 1832 and the Tariff of Abominations. Import taxes would gradually be cut over the next decade until, by 1842, they matched the levels set in the Tariff of 1816—an average of 20%.
1833, Gave the president the power to use the army and the navy to collect federal tariff duties. Passed in response to the events following the Compromise of 1832 in order to ensure that tariffs were collected.
1836, Required that all antislavery appeals to be tabled w/out debate. Caused controversy over the rights of free speech & petition. Repealed by John Q Adams 8 years later.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Published by Calhoun. Denounced the Tariff of Abominations. Stated outright that the South should nullify the Tariff. SC failed to get the 2/3 majority.
The belief that everyone possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth & put him in touch w/ God, or the "Oversoul". Stubborn individualism in religious & social matters. Commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, & self- discipline. Bred hostility to authority & conventional wisdom.
Second Great Awakening
1800, Swept America in a flood of spiritual fervor. Church attendance greatly increased & religion became much more emotional. Methodist & Baptist sects reaped the greatest reward. More women attended church & heard messages directed at them. Women were given roles of converting their families.
The goal was the immediate emancipation of all slaves & the end of racial discrimination & segregation. Partly fueled by the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening. Became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War.
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's rights convention of 1848. Declaration of Sentiments proclaimed "all men & women are created equal". Launched the modern women's rights movement.
Hudson River School
Focus on romantic images of local landscapes, which promoted protection & settlement of the West & the creation of national parks.
An artistic, musical, & philosophical movement that emphasized strong emotion as a source of the aesthetic experience. Showed majestic, turbulent, &/or wild scenes.
Election of 1844
Still in the Jacksonian era, Polk (Democrat) barely defeated Clay (Whig) w/ an expansionist platform. Polk went on to annex Texas & Oregon & provoke/win the Mexican-American War.
Texas border dispute into a highly successful war that won US all the land from Texas to California for %15 million. Manifest Destiny spirit & free/slave territory disputes surged afterward.
The American belief that the US was destined to spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Was the core of American expansionism.
Stipulated that slavery would not be allowed to exist in any territory gained from Mexico. Passed the House, not the Senate (Southerners refused to lose prospective slave states). Began the series of free/slave legal battles that ended w/ the Civil War.
Free Soil Party
An antislavery party that pointed to the later Republican Party. Included industrialists who wanted higher tariffs, Northern Democrats who wanted Oregon, racists who wanted blacks out of new territories, & moral abolitionists. Generally agreed that the cheap labor of slavery kept poor whites from earning enough to advance in society.
Compromise of 1850
Allowed California to enter as a free state. Gave money to Texas in return for land. Created a stricter fugitive slave law.
Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
Supreme court case where the Cherokee Indians filed suit against the state of Georgia for infringement of rights and despite being ruled in favor of, were denied recompense by Andrew Jackson.
Worcester vs Georgia
Supreme court case ruling that declared Native tribes to be "distinct communities" and that state laws have no say in their affairs, an outcome again ignored by Andrew Jackson.
Mexican land settled by slave-supporting southerners and delayed admittance to the Union due to their potential disturbance to the delicate equilibrium in senate.
Large tract of land bought by the United States for 18 million dollars after their victory in the Mexican-American War containing the much desired California.
John C. Calhoun
A political sparring partner to Adams, Jackson, Webster, & Clay. Best remembered for the rallying cries to states' rights & nullification, used to support his steadfast opposition to tariffs on manufactures & his defense of slavery.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, Douglas, Breckinridge, & Bell. Lincoln won w/out a single Southern state. Almost immediately, Southern states began withdrawing from the Union, setting stage for a Civil War & the creation of a new state.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Depicts the reality of slavery, while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Helped fuel that abolitionist cause in the 1850s. "So this is the little lady who started this Great War." -Lincoln
1853, Agreement to buy a strip if land in the South to build a railroad line to the Gulf of California. James Gadsden payed $10 million for territory about the size of Pennsylvania.
1854, A document that described the rationale for the US to purchase Cuba from Spain. Implied the US should declare war if Spain refused. Proposed a shift in foreign policy, justifying the use of force to seize Cuba in the name of national security.
Personal Liberty Laws
A series of laws passed in the North in response to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 & 1850. Designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, & fugitive slaves by nullifying the Fugitive Slave Law w/out actually invoking controversial doctrine of nullification.
1854,Allowed people in Kansas & Nebraska to decide whether or not to allow slavery. Served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Infuriated many in the North who considered the Missouri Compromise to be a long-standing binding agreement. Pro-slavery South strongly supported.
Described the violent hostilities between pro- & antislavery forces in Kansas Set by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Exploded into a bloody civil war.
2nd of the Lincoln debates. Douglas supported the practice of popular sovereignty in the states where slavery was an issue, only if a state's majority chooses to bar slavery from its territories can slavery be legally abolished. Douglas won. Democratic party was split & Douglas lost support from the South.
A series of public debates prior to the Civil War. Purpose was to display each candidate's views on different topics. Douglas won the senate seat. Lincoln received public notice, which helped him win the presidential election of 1861.
Dred Scott vs Sanford
Scott sued for his freedom following the death of his owner. Lost because no one of African ancestry could claim US citizenship. Catalyzed Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
16th President. Became the leading force in rejoining the North & South during the Civil War. Helped abolish slavery & bring the Civil War to a close. Assassinated 1865 by Booth, bringing the nation even closer.
5h chief of justice of the Supreme Court. Best known for his ruling during the Dred Scott case. Felt that African Americans could not be considered citizens of the US because they were inferior. Helped the Emancipation Proclamation soar across the nation.
The concept of allowing the majority to decide whether or not the territory they live in should enter the Union as a free or slave state. Led to many problems, such as Bleeding Kansas, & was eventually dropped.
Ex Parte Milligan
A Supreme Court decision stating that civilians could not be tried in military courts if there are civil courts available. Helped to define the power of the military over civilians in wartime.
Ex Parte Merryman
1861, a US Federal court case which arose out of the Civil War. Against the presidents ability to suspend habeas corpus (the ability to take legal action as a prisoner to become free due to unlawful detention). Ruled that the president could not suspend habeas courpus, but this was ignored.
1862, Judicial cases argued before the Supreme Court during the Civil War. Declared the blockade of the Southern ports unconstitutional.
Ableman vs. Booth
1859, the Supreme Court stated that state courts could not issue rulings that contradict federal court decisions. Created to overturn a decision by the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. Ableman emphasized the dual form of American government & the independence of state & federal courts from one another.
Prigg vs. Pennsylvania
1842, The Supreme Court decided that Federal law is superior to state law. Overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result due to the questions of Federal law & state law being brought up by the Federal court stating the state's decision was unconstitutional.
1845, An American political & cultural attitude about freedom. Formed as a political organization that advocated free trade, social reform, expansion southward into the territories, & support for republican, anti-aristocratic movements abroad.
1850s, A Southern critic of slavery. Published "The Impending Crisis of the South", which argued that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders. Was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South. Believed to be acting as an agent of the North attempting to split Southern whites along class line.
An American social theorist who published racial & slavery-based sociological theories in the Antebellum Era. Argued that "the negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic & social protections of slavery. Contended that slavery ensured that blacks would be economically secure & morally civilized. Was a leading pro-slavery intellectual. spoke for many of the Southern plantation owners.
An unsuccessful proposal to resolve the US secession crisis by addressing the concerns that led the states in the Deep South to contemplate secession. Most of the laws conceded to the wants of the South, not the North. Led to the compromise being dismissed, causing an uproar in the South over the North not accepting it.
1861, Congress declared that the Civil War was being waged for the reunion of the states & not to interfere w/ the institutions of the South, mostly slavery.
Manassas Juntion-Bull Run
1861, Intended to demonstrate the superiority of the Union arms, which could lead to the capture of the Confederate capital.
1861, The most important fort to start the Civil War. Opened the momentous bombardment was fired from a mortar located at Fort Johnson on James Island.
Meant attacking everywhere, encircling the enemy. Emulated the way constrictors attack (hence the name "Anaconda Plan").
The concept was to remain on the defensive until an opportunity presented itself to laugh offensive operations. Ensured that all Northern thrusts would be met, assuring Confederate citizens that their homes would be defended, at least initially.
Northerners who opposed the Civil War. Considered traitors by others in the North. Favored immediate peace w/ the Confederacy.
An executive order issued by Lincoln during the Civil War. Proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves. 50,000 freed immediately, the rest freed as the Union armies advanced.
1862, The first major battle in the Civil War in the North. Also the bloodiest single-day battle in American history (23,000 casualties). The Emancipation Proclamation was later announced.
Called for the capture of the Mississippi River to strangle the Confederacy economically & strategically. The essential part of the Union plan to win the Civil War.
Confiscation Acts of 1861
An act of Congress during the early months of the Civil War permitting the confiscation of any property, including slaves, being used to support the confederate insurrection.
Lincoln 1863, A state could rejoin the Union when 10% of voters had taken oath of allegiance to the US & emancipation.
Johnson 1865, Called for the 10% & special state conventions required to repeal the decrees of secession, repudiate all Confederate debt, & ratify the 13th amendment.
The creation of five military districts in the seceded states to be readmitted to the Union. Required Congressional approval for new state conventions. Ratified the 13th & 14th amendments.
1865, Abolished & continued to prohibit slavery.
1868, Reversed the Dred Scott decision & allowed newly freed slaves the right to gain a citizenship. Prohibited the government from depriving a person of their unalienable rights. Required the government to provide equal protection to everybody in their jurisdiction.
1870, Allowed black men to vote. Forbade any government in the US from denying someone the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude.
Tenure of Office Act
Took away the current president's power to remove an executive officer appointed by a past president w/out the advice & consent of the Senate.
Hayes vs. Tilden. One of the most controversial elections in history. 20 electoral votes unaccounted for from Florida, Louisiana, & SC, later given to Hayes. Rumored that a deal was made, giving Hayes the presidency in return for the end of Reconstruction. 1st Democratic win of the popular vote in 24 years.
Compromise of 1877
Informal deal that gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency on the terms that he remove federal troops from former Confederate states, construct a southern transcontinental railroad, and accept laws that would help industrialize the post-war south.
A stricter plan for reconstruction. Stated that re-admittance into the Union would depend on a majority of the former Confederate states taking the oath that completely renounced their ties to the Confederacy. Passed by both houses, but was vetoed by Lincoln.