Lab Practical: (Chapter 9/10) The Skull: Cranial & Facial Bones

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1

The frontal and maxillary sinuses, along with sinuses in the ethmoid and sphenoid bones, collectively form the paranasal sinuses. What painful condition results when the passages from these sinuses into the nasal cavity are blocked?

a sinus headache

2

With what structure does the temporal process of the zygomatic bones articulate

the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

3

What two pairs of bones make up the hard palate?

bones- the maxillae and palatine bones

structures- the palatine process of the maxillae, and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones

4

What is the collective function of the auditory ossicles?

to transmit vibrations (sound) from the eardrum to the inner ear

5

What is the function of the hyoid bone?

The hyoid bones forms a base of attachment for the tongue. It also serves an attachments site for muscles involved in swallowing

6
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Identify the bone indicated by the white star.

frontal bone

7
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Identify the bone indicated by the green star.

zygomatic bone

8
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Identify the bone indicated by the blue star

sphenoid bone

9
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Identify the bone indicated by the red star

Maxillary bone

10
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Identify the bone indicated by the pink star.

mandible

11
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Identify the bone indicated by the yellow arrow.

nasal bone

12
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identify the structure indicated by the red arrow.

perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

13
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What articulates with the red arrow structure inferiorly?

vomer

14
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Identify the bone indicated by the green arrow.

inferior nasal concha

15
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What is the function of the bone indicated by the green arrow?

Increases surface area and air turbulence in the nasal cavity

16
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Identify the opening indicated by the blue arrow.

infraorbital foramen of the maxillary bone

17
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Identify the ridge indicated by the red bracket.

Alveolar process of the maxillary bone

18
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Identify the ridge indicated by the yellow bracket.

Alveolar process of the mandible

19
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What articulates with the red and yellow bracket structures?

Teeth

20
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Identify the opening indicated by the pink arrow.

mental foramen of the mandible

21
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What passes through the opening indicated by the pink arrow?

inferior alveolar nerve

22
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Identify the structure indicated by the green circle

condylar process of the mandible

23
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What articulates with the structure

mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

24
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Identify the structure indicated by the yellow circle.

coronoid process of the mandible

25
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What is the function of the structure indicated by the yellow circle

Attachment site for the temporalis muscle

26
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Identify the region indicated by the red bracket.

Ramus of the mandible

27
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Identify the region indicated by the green bracket.

Body of the mandible

28
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Identify the structure indicated by the red arrow.

Angle of the mandible

29
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Identify the ridge indicated by the yellow bracket.

Alveolar Process of the mandible

30
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What articulates with the structure indicated by the yellow bracket.

Teeth

31
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Identify the opening indicated by the blue arrow.

mental foramen of the mandible

32
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What passes through the opening indicated by the blue arrow?

inferior alveolar nerve

33

Yellow Marrow is made of adipose tissue. What's its function?

yellow marrow in the bone is primarily for storage of energy

34

Consider the following bones: femur, humerus, sternum, scapula, and rib.

Which one of these bones contains compact bone?

Which of these bones contain bone marrow

All of the bones in the body contains compact bone and bone marrow

35

Consider the following bones: femur, humerus, sternum, scapula, and rib.

Which of these bones contain bone marrow

All of the bones in the body contains compact bone and bone marrow

36

What are the four sutures that involve the parietal bone?

List four structures and for each one name the other bone involved in the articulation

Sagittal Suture: The other parietal bone

Coronal Suture: frontal bone

Lambdoidal Suture: occipital bone

Squamous Suture: temporal bone

37

In general terms, why is it important for at least some of the cranial bones to have holes?

Holes are necessary so that blood vessels and nerves may enter and exit the skull

38

Where is the marrow if there is no marrow cavity?

The spongy bone

39

What is the function of red marrow and where is it found?

Function: Formation of Blood Cells

Found:

heads of femur (thigh)

humerus (upper arm)

sternum

coxal bone

40

Which are the only bones that have medullary cavities?

Long Bones

41

What are examples of flat bones?

ribs, scapula and sternum

42

What are two things that make bones in your fingers and toes long bones?

1. They're shaped like rods with the length generally greater than the diameter

2. Inside each long bone is a hollow cavity called medullary cavity (only in long bones)

43

Describe the Axial Skeleton?

the portion of the skeleton found in the longitudinal axis of the body

it consists of 80 bones, including those of the skull, the vertebral column and the thoracic cage

most are either flat or irregular bones

44

Describe the Appendicular Skeleton

Includes 126 bones that make up the arms, legs, pectoral and pelvic girdles. (girdles attach the arms and legs to the axial skeleton)

Most are either long or short bones

45

What is diploƫ?

Diploƫ is the spongy bone in the flat bone

46
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Identify the type of bone indicated by the yellow arrow.

short bone

47
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Identify the type of bone indicated by the pink arrow.

long bone

48
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Identify the type of bone indicated by the blue arrow.

flat bone

49
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Identify the type of bone indicated by the green arrow

irregular bone

50
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Identify the structural region indicated by the pink bracket.

diaphysis

51
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What membrane would surround the pink bracket region?

periosteum

52
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Identify the structural regions indicated by the green ovals.

epiphyses

53
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What would cover the joint surfaces in the green oval regions?

Hyaline (articular cartilage)

54
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Identify the bone tissue indicated by the blue arrow.

compact bone

55

Identify the structure indicated by the purple bracket.

epiphyseal line

56

What was the purple bracket structure previously?

epiphyseal plate

57

What type of bone is indicated by the red star?

spongy bone

58

What space is indicated by the blue star?

medullary cavity

59

What would be found within the space indicated by the blue star and what is its function?

yellow bone marrow

(adipose tissue=energy storage)