MALE: 13.5-17.5 grams/dL
FEMALE: 12.0-15.5 grams/dL
Oxygen-carrying protein on red blood cell. low = anemia
MALE: 40 -50.0 %
FEMALE: 35 - 45 %
Proportion of RBCs to fluid in blood
low = anemia
WBC- white blood cell
3.5-10.5 billion cells/L
(3,500 to 10,500 cells/mcL)
High WBC- infection or inflammation; immune system or bone
Low WBC (leukopenia)- autoimmune disorder, bone marrow problems, cancer
RBC- red blood cell
MALE: 4.32 - 5.72 trillion cells/L
FEMALE: 3.9 - 5.03 trillion cells/L
High RBC (erythrocytosis)- polycythemia Vera, heart disease
High: transient abdominal cramps, diarrhea, cardiac arrest if
severe- ECG abnormalities
Low: resp. muscle weakness, abdominal distention, decreased bowel sounds, constipation
High: Anorexia, nausea and vomiting, constipation, fatigue, diminished reflexes, lethargy, decreased level of consciousness, confusion, personality change, cardiac arrest if severe
Low: Numbness and tingling of fingers, toes, and circumoral (around mouth) region, positive Chvostek's sign (contraction of facial muscles when facial nerve is tapped), hyperactive reflexes, muscle twitching and cramping; carpal and pedal spasms, tetany, seizures, laryngospasm, dysrhythmias.
BOTH: Decreased level of consciousness (confusion, lethargy, coma)
High: perhaps thirst, seizures if develops rapidly or is very severe.
Low: seizures if develops rapidly or is very severe. Aka. Water intoxication; water excess
negatively charged ion- works w/ other electrolytes to regulate body fluid & acid base balance
High: dehydration, problems that cause high sodium- kidney dz, Cushing syndrome.
Low: occurs w/ low sodium- CHF, vomiting, gastric suction, chronic lung dz- resp. acidosis
Like calcium, found in bones and teeth
High: Kidney dz decreases excretion of excess phosphate in blood. Extra can cause calcium to be pulled out of bones.
Low: meds prevent absorption, low mag (needed to absorb), high calcium (binds to), certain breathing problems
(blood urea nitrogen)
Urea is the product of protein metabolism by liver and is excreted by kidneys. (reabsorbable)
High: dehydration, prerenal failure, minimally age, digested blood from GI bleeding.
Low: overhydration (hypervolemia), liver failure, malnutrition, SIADH, malabsorption
differentiate renal issue and other issues
High: volume depletion issues Low: liver disease, malnutrition, decrease protein,
enzyme found in the liver that helps your body metabolize protein
High: When the liver is damaged, ALT is released into the bloodstream and levels increase
Low: normal and expected
PT (Prothrombin time)
Time it takes blood to clot
High: may indicate liver damage or certain blood thinning drugs
PT w/ activator added to blood
Evaluate: response to heparin
Ratio allows for universal comparison
High: Clotting too slow- medication, liver problems, vit K def., âclotting proteins
Low: Clotting to quickly- supplemental vit K or Ý intake, estrogen containing meds (OCP)
PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
higher the more acidic, lower more basic
HCO3 sodium bicarbonate
Higher more basic, lower more acidic
ESR/ sed rate
non-specific measure of inflammation
The speed at which the red blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube is measured. Inflammation can cause abnormal proteins to appear in your blood. These proteins cause your red blood cells to clump together.
60-70 Evaluate: response to heparin
Calcium (Ca+) & ________ have inverse relationship
Magnesium (Mg+) & ________ have a direct relationship.
Potassium, chloride and _________ have direct relationships.
Magnesium is mostly stored in _______ & _______.
Bones & cartilage
If a patient is acidotic, hydrogen enters the cell and _______ exits
If a patient is _____________they should avoid salt substitutes
A patient with hyperkalemia will have __________ __________T waves on an EKG.
Cell membrane walls are __________ charged and repel chloride.
The ECF and ICE distribution is mainly controlled by ________
Hypernatremic patients will have __________ cardiac activity.
150,000 - 450,000
1.5 - 2.5 mEq/L
22 - 26 mEq/L
7.35 - 7.45
35 - 45 mmHg
80 - 100 %
Normal - 5.7%
Prediabetes - 5.7% - 6.4%
Diabetes - 6.5%<