HESI Lab Values

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1

HGB- Hemoglobin

MALE: 13.5-17.5 grams/dL
FEMALE: 12.0-15.5 grams/dL

Oxygen-carrying protein on red blood cell. low = anemia

2

HCT- Hematocrit

MALE: 40 -50.0 %
FEMALE: 35 - 45 %

Proportion of RBCs to fluid in blood

low = anemia

3

WBC- white blood cell

3.5-10.5 billion cells/L
(3,500 to 10,500 cells/mcL)

High WBC- infection or inflammation; immune system or bone marrow issues
Low WBC (leukopenia)- autoimmune disorder, bone marrow problems, cancer

4

RBC- red blood cell

MALE: 4.32 - 5.72 trillion cells/L
FEMALE: 3.9 - 5.03 trillion cells/L

High RBC (erythrocytosis)- polycythemia Vera, heart disease
Low- anemia

5

Potassium- K+

3.5-5.1 mmol/dL

High: transient abdominal cramps, diarrhea, cardiac arrest if severe- ECG abnormalities
Low: resp. muscle weakness, abdominal distention, decreased bowel sounds, constipation

6

Calcium

8.2-10.2 mmol/dL

High: Anorexia, nausea and vomiting, constipation, fatigue, diminished reflexes, lethargy, decreased level of consciousness, confusion, personality change, cardiac arrest if severe

Low: Numbness and tingling of fingers, toes, and circumoral (around mouth) region, positive Chvostek's sign (contraction of facial muscles when facial nerve is tapped), hyperactive reflexes, muscle twitching and cramping; carpal and pedal spasms, tetany, seizures, laryngospasm, dysrhythmias.

7

Sodium

136-145 mmol/dL

BOTH: Decreased level of consciousness (confusion, lethargy, coma)

High: perhaps thirst, seizures if develops rapidly or is very severe.

Low: seizures if develops rapidly or is very severe. Aka. Water intoxication; water excess

8

Chloride

98-107 mmol/dL

negatively charged ion- works w/ other electrolytes to regulate body fluid & acid base balance

High: dehydration, problems that cause high sodium- kidney dz, Cushing syndrome.

Low: occurs w/ low sodium- CHF, vomiting, gastric suction, chronic lung dz- resp. acidosis

9

Phosphate

2.4-4.5

Like calcium, found in bones and teeth

High: Kidney dz decreases excretion of excess phosphate in blood. Extra can cause calcium to be pulled out of bones.

Low: meds prevent absorption, low mag (needed to absorb), high calcium (binds to), certain breathing problems

10

BUN

(blood urea nitrogen)

5-25 mg/dL

Urea is the product of protein metabolism by liver and is excreted by kidneys. (reabsorbable)

High: dehydration, prerenal failure, minimally age, digested blood from GI bleeding.

Low: overhydration (hypervolemia), liver failure, malnutrition, SIADH, malabsorption

11

Creatinine

(Cr)

0.5-1.5 mg/dL

12

BUN:CR RATION

10:1

differentiate renal issue and other issues

High: volume depletion issues Low: liver disease, malnutrition, decrease protein,

13

ALT

15-65 U/L

enzyme found in the liver that helps your body metabolize protein

High: When the liver is damaged, ALT is released into the bloodstream and levels increase

Low: normal and expected

14

PT (Prothrombin time)

11-14 seconds

Time it takes blood to clot

High: may indicate liver damage or certain blood thinning drugs

15

aPTT

30-40 seconds

PT w/ activator added to blood

Evaluate: response to heparin

16

INR

<1.1 normal

2.0-3.0 therapeutic

Ratio allows for universal comparison

High: Clotting too slow- medication, liver problems, vit K def., âclotting proteins

Low: Clotting to quickly- supplemental vit K or ├Ł intake, estrogen containing meds (OCP)

17

PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide

35-45

higher the more acidic, lower more basic

18

HCO3 sodium bicarbonate

22-26

Higher more basic, lower more acidic

19

PaO2

80-100%

20

ESR/ sed rate

0-22 men

0-29 women

non-specific measure of inflammation

The speed at which the red blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube is measured. Inflammation can cause abnormal proteins to appear in your blood. These proteins cause your red blood cells to clump together.

21

PTT

60-70 Evaluate: response to heparin

22

Calcium (Ca+) & ________ have inverse relationship

Phosphorus

23

Magnesium (Mg+) & ________ have a direct relationship.

Calcium. Ca+

24

Potassium, chloride and _________ have direct relationships.

Na-

25

Magnesium is mostly stored in _______ & _______.

Bones & cartilage

26

If a patient is acidotic, hydrogen enters the cell and _______ exits

Potassium K+

27

If a patient is _____________they should avoid salt substitutes

Hyperkalemic

28

A patient with hyperkalemia will have __________ __________T waves on an EKG.

Tall tented

29

Cell membrane walls are __________ charged and repel chloride.

Negatively -

30

The ECF and ICE distribution is mainly controlled by ________

Sodium Na-

31

Hypernatremic patients will have __________ cardiac activity.

Decreased