apII test 3 Flashcards


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1

________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ________ happens in the mitochondrion.

Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle

2

What is the synthesis of glucose from amino acids called?

Gluconeogenesis

3

________ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas ________ is a long-term regulator.

Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK); insulin

4

Which of the following are macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water

5

Which of the following constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol?"

Low-density lipoproteins

6

Which of the following is the healthiest ratio of triglycerides?

High HDL: low LDL

7

The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ________, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called ________.

ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism

8

Where are most carbohydrates in the body found?

Muscle glycogen

9

what process produces most of the NADH that contributes to ATP synthesis in the cell?

The citric acid cycle

10

Which vitamin deficiency is the most common worldwide?

Vitamin A

11

Carbohydrates function as structural components in all of the following except ________.

amino acids

12

Which of the following is not a function of proteins in the body?

Serving as cofactors for enzymes

13

Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?

Glycogen

14

Which of the following is a product of glycolysis?

Pyruvate

15

Which of the following represents the overall reaction for aerobic respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + 6 H2O

16

Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

17

In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?

Tissue (interstitial) fluid

18

Which of the following occurs with hypokalemia?

Cells are hyperpolarized.

19

Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?

A drop in blood osmolarity

20

Water output is largely controlled by varying ________.

urine volume

21

Most body water intake is from ________, whereas most body water lost is via ________.

drinking; urine

22

What is the function of aldosterone?

It increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.

23

What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?

The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

24

Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalemia?

the resting membrane potential is more negative.

25

which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system

CO2 + H2O HCO3 - + H+ H2CO3

26

Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?

Distal convoluted tubule

27

What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?

It promotes water conservation.

28

What is the principal cation of the ECF?

Na+

29

A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.

False

30

Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called ________.

osmoreceptors

31

________ is a hormone, whereas ________ is an enzyme.

Secretin; pepsin

32

Pepsinogen is produced by ________ and is activated by ________, which is secreted by ________.

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl); parietal cells

33

Which of the following is the accessory organ of digestion responsible for producing bile?

Liver

34

The ________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.

submandibular; lingual

35

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ________ cells.

parietal

36

An example of chemical digestion is the break down of ________ into ________.

nucleic acids; nucleotides

37

Which of the following nutrients must be digested in order to be absorbed?

Proteins

38

The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called the ________.

muscularis externa

39

Which of the following is not normally found in saliva?

Protease

40

The oral phase of swallowing is under ________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is ________.

central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes

41

The outermost layer of the digestive tract, which is composed of a thin layer of areolar tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is called the ________.

serosa (mesentery)

42

The physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside of the body to the inside is called ________.

absorption

43

Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?

Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

44

The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called ________.

mesenteries

45

Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion?

Pancreas

46

All of the following except _____ contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.

circular folds

47

. The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by

hepatopancreatic sphincter

48

The partially digested fluid that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is

Chyme

49

Each hepatic lobule consists of plates of epithelial cells radially arranged around a blood vessel called the _____.

central vein

50

Liver cells which among other things produce bile are called

hepatocytes

51

Which of the following statements about the duodenum is NOT true?

It is longer than the jejunum.

52

What is the correct order in which air flows through the respiratory tract?

pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles

53

The air passages beneath the conchae that create turbulence within the nasal cavity are

meatuses.

54

. The lower respiratory tract begins at

the glottis.

55

Pulmonary surfactant is produced by

type II alveolar cells.

56

What happens when the diaphragm contracts?

The size of the thoracic cavity increases and air flows into the lungs.

57

What structure corresponds to the "Adam's apple"?

thyroid cartilage

58

which passageway may conduct either air or food or liquid in normal circumstances?

laryngopharynx

59

starting in the abdominal cavity and progressing dorsally, you would have to cut through the ____, in this order, to expose the kidney.

peritoneum, renal fascia, perirenal fat capsule, and fibrous capsule

60

The sphincter that is found between the small intestine and large intestine is called

the ileocecal sphincter

61

The parietal cell of the stomach secretes:

HCl

62

Emphysema can lead to which of the following?

Respiratory acidosis

63

Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.

False

64

Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.

True

65

Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion

true

66

Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.

True

67

Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.

True

68

Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.

False

69

What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?

The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein

70

Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?

ADH release is inhibited.

71

Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?

High blood sodium concentration

72

Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?

An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF

73

Hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration.

True

74

The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which ___________.

expels CO2 produced by the buffer system

75

Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?

It is a significant component of nucleic acids.

76

Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time will lead to __________.

respiratory acidosis

77

What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?

Cl-

78

What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?

K+

79

An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?

Metabolic alkalosis

80

What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?

7.35-7.45

81

Hypernatremia is a plasma __________ concentration above normal.

Na+

82

A hemorrhage results in which of the following?

A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity

83

How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?

By horomones

84

A hemorrhage results in which of the following?

A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity

85

Defecation is stimulated by

stretching of the rectum.

86

Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except

digest most of the proteins we get in the diet

87

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

88

Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence

pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.

89

Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming

emulsification droplets.

90

Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____ and fatty acids are absorbed in the ______?

small intestine, small intestine too

91

____________ break(s) down _______________.

Peptidases; proteins

92

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the

mouth; stomach

93

The _____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ______ of the stomach.

intestinal crypts, gastric pits

94

The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except

rugae

95

Which of these is the site of contact digestion?

brush border of the small intestine

96

Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?

pepsin

97

Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?

triglyceride

98

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

cholecystokinin (CCK)

99

The ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____

liver, cholesterol

100

Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function.

bile salts

101

_____, which is secreted by ______ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption.

Intrinsic factor, parietal

102

_____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions?

the gastric phase

103

The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is

the liver.

104

The ___________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, and its neurons are found in the ____________.

nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

105

Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth.

20;32

106

Both pacreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum

True

107

Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.

False

108

Where would you measure the shell temperature of a patient?

Their skin

109

Which of the following is true regarding body temperature?

Adult oral temperature is typically 36.6° to 37.0°C.

110

Which of the following is the primary source of body heat?

Nutrient oxidation

111

How is the basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from the total metabolic rate (TMR)?

The TMR includes the BMR.

112

Three hours after your lunch and you are absorbing nutrients, which digestive phase are you in?

Absorptive state

113

Which of the following is not a major class of nutrients?

Nucleic acids

114

Which of the following results in heat exhaustion?

Extreme electrolyte loss via sweat

115

Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of what?

ATP hydrolysis

116

What is the quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss?

Cutaneous vasodilation

117

Which of the following enhances loss of body heat by conduction?

Convection

118

During periods of fasting, why is fat said to have a protein-sparing effect?

The body does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first

119

Approximately what percentage of the energy in a glucose molecule winds up in ATP with the rest lost as body heat?

40

120

Glycogenesis is stimulated by __________, whereas glycogenolysis is stimulated by __________.

insulin; glucagon and epinephrine

121

Fats should account for about __________ percent of the daily caloric intake

30

122

When should the basal metabolic rate be measured?

When a person first rises in the morning

123

Which of the following does not raise the total metabolic rate?

Starvation

124

Which of the following is secreted during the postabsorptive state?

Growth hormone

125

Which of the following occurs during the absorptive state?

Gluconeogenesis is suppressed

126

The liver performs all of the following functions except __________.

producing insulin and glucagon

127

.The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to __________ them.

deaminate

128

Which metabolic process produces ammonia?

Deamination of glutamic acid

129

Which of the following is not a function of the liver?

Secretion of digestive enzymes

130

Where does the highest rate of tissue protein turnover occur?

The intestinal mucosa

131

ncomplete fatty acid oxidation produces __________, which might lead to __________.

ketone bodies; acidosis

132

Fatty acids are catabolized through which process?

Beta oxidation

133

Most of the fat in the body is stored in what form?

Triglycerides

134

Minerals are __________, whereas vitamins are __________.

inorganic elements; organic compounds

135

High-quality __________ proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids

complete

136

__ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ____

micelles; fat globules

137

the muscle tone of the ____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _____

taeniae coli; haustra

138

bacteria constitute about ______% of the dry weight of the feces

30

139

Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by __________.

the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

140

The __________ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum.

pyloric sphincter

141

Which of the following nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine

Triglycerides

142

Mouth secreted-enzyme that increases in activity upon entering the HCI of the stomach.

Lingual Lipase