142 notecards = 36 pages (4 cards per page)
________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ________ happens in the mitochondrion.
Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
What is the synthesis of glucose from amino acids called?
________ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas ________ is a long-term regulator.
Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK); insulin
Which of the following are macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
Which of the following constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol?"
Which of the following is the healthiest ratio of triglycerides?
High HDL: low LDL
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ________, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called ________.
ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism
Where are most carbohydrates in the body found?
what process produces most of the NADH that contributes to ATP synthesis in the cell?
The citric acid cycle
Which vitamin deficiency is the most common worldwide?
Carbohydrates function as structural components in all of the following except ________.
Which of the following is not a function of proteins in the body?
Serving as cofactors for enzymes
Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
Which of the following is a product of glycolysis?
Which of the following represents the overall reaction for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + 6 H2O
Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
Which of the following occurs with hypokalemia?
Cells are hyperpolarized.
Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?
A drop in blood osmolarity
Water output is largely controlled by varying ________.
Most body water intake is from ________, whereas most body water lost is via ________.
What is the function of aldosterone?
It increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?
The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalemia?
the resting membrane potential is more negative.
which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system
CO2 + H2O HCO3 - + H+ H2CO3
Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?
Distal convoluted tubule
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
It promotes water conservation.
What is the principal cation of the ECF?
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called ________.
________ is a hormone, whereas ________ is an enzyme.
Pepsinogen is produced by ________ and is activated by ________, which is secreted by ________.
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl); parietal cells
Which of the following is the accessory organ of digestion responsible for producing bile?
The ________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ________ cells.
An example of chemical digestion is the break down of ________ into ________.
nucleic acids; nucleotides
Which of the following nutrients must be digested in order to be absorbed?
The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called the ________.
Which of the following is not normally found in saliva?
The oral phase of swallowing is under ________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is ________.
central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
The outermost layer of the digestive tract, which is composed of a thin layer of areolar tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is called the ________.
The physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside of the body to the inside is called ________.
Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?
Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called ________.
Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion?
All of the following except _____ contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
. The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by
The partially digested fluid that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is
Each hepatic lobule consists of plates of epithelial cells radially arranged around a blood vessel called the _____.
Liver cells which among other things produce bile are called
Which of the following statements about the duodenum is NOT true?
It is longer than the jejunum.
What is the correct order in which air flows through the respiratory tract?
pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles
The air passages beneath the conchae that create turbulence within the nasal cavity are
. The lower respiratory tract begins at
Pulmonary surfactant is produced by
type II alveolar cells.
What happens when the diaphragm contracts?
The size of the thoracic cavity increases and air flows into the lungs.
What structure corresponds to the "Adam's apple"?
which passageway may conduct either air or food or liquid in normal circumstances?
starting in the abdominal cavity and progressing dorsally, you would have to cut through the ____, in this order, to expose the kidney.
peritoneum, renal fascia, perirenal fat capsule, and fibrous capsule
The sphincter that is found between the small intestine and large intestine is called
the ileocecal sphincter
The parietal cell of the stomach secretes:
Emphysema can lead to which of the following?
Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.
Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion
Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?
The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?
ADH release is inhibited.
Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?
High blood sodium concentration
Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?
An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF
Hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration.
The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which ___________.
expels CO2 produced by the buffer system
Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?
It is a significant component of nucleic acids.
Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time will lead to __________.
What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
Hypernatremia is a plasma __________ concentration above normal.
A hemorrhage results in which of the following?
A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity
How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?
A hemorrhage results in which of the following?
A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity
Defecation is stimulated by
stretching of the rectum.
Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except
digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
The three most abundant classes of nutrients are
fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence
pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.
Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____ and fatty acids are absorbed in the ______?
small intestine, small intestine too
____________ break(s) down _______________.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the
The _____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ______ of the stomach.
intestinal crypts, gastric pits
The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
brush border of the small intestine
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
The ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____
Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function.
_____, which is secreted by ______ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption.
Intrinsic factor, parietal
_____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions?
the gastric phase
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is
The ___________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, and its neurons are found in the ____________.
nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth.
Both pacreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum
Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.
Where would you measure the shell temperature of a patient?
Which of the following is true regarding body temperature?
Adult oral temperature is typically 36.6° to 37.0°C.
Which of the following is the primary source of body heat?
How is the basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from the total metabolic rate (TMR)?
The TMR includes the BMR.
Three hours after your lunch and you are absorbing nutrients, which digestive phase are you in?
Which of the following is not a major class of nutrients?
Which of the following results in heat exhaustion?
Extreme electrolyte loss via sweat
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of what?
What is the quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss?
Which of the following enhances loss of body heat by conduction?
During periods of fasting, why is fat said to have a protein-sparing effect?
The body does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first
Approximately what percentage of the energy in a glucose molecule winds up in ATP with the rest lost as body heat?
Glycogenesis is stimulated by __________, whereas glycogenolysis is stimulated by __________.
insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
Fats should account for about __________ percent of the daily caloric intake
When should the basal metabolic rate be measured?
When a person first rises in the morning
Which of the following does not raise the total metabolic rate?
Which of the following is secreted during the postabsorptive state?
Which of the following occurs during the absorptive state?
Gluconeogenesis is suppressed
The liver performs all of the following functions except __________.
producing insulin and glucagon
.The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to __________ them.
Which metabolic process produces ammonia?
Deamination of glutamic acid
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
Secretion of digestive enzymes
Where does the highest rate of tissue protein turnover occur?
The intestinal mucosa
ncomplete fatty acid oxidation produces __________, which might lead to __________.
ketone bodies; acidosis
Fatty acids are catabolized through which process?
Most of the fat in the body is stored in what form?
Minerals are __________, whereas vitamins are __________.
inorganic elements; organic compounds
High-quality __________ proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids
__ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ____
micelles; fat globules
the muscle tone of the ____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _____
taeniae coli; haustra
bacteria constitute about ______% of the dry weight of the feces
Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by __________.
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
The __________ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum.
Which of the following nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine
Mouth secreted-enzyme that increases in activity upon entering the HCI of the stomach.