The best descriptive term for the resident microbes is
Resident microbiota is commonly found in the
Normal resident microbes are absent from the:
The general phenomenon whereby a person's resident microbiota play an important role in helping to protect against intruding microorganisms by limiting attachment sites, and/or altering the local chemical and physiological environment of the body is called
The human body is colonized at/during the birthing process; in utero the body is sterile.
Any characteristic or structure of the microbe that increases the ability of the organism to cause infection or a disease state is called a fomite.
The specific action of hemolysins is to
damage red blood cells
The most common resident microbiota in the mouth is Streptococcus species.
The portal of entry into the human body for the greatest number of pathogens is the:
the respiratory tract
The infectious dose is the:
the minimum number of organisms necessary to cause disease
Which of the following is(are) considered virulence factor(s)?
-all of theseall of these
all of these
Endotoxins are only produced by Gram (-) bacteria.
In the phases of clinical infectious disease, which of the following is a short period marked by mild signs and symptoms?
the prodromal stage
A(n) _____ infection is an infection that compounds a pre-existing one
The term ____ infection is used to refer to the initial infection in a previously health individual, which can later be complicated by an additional infection caused by a difference microbe.
An infection that remains confined to the initial infection site is called a(n) ____ infection.
The portal of entry for pathogens that are transmitted through sexual contact is the _____ tract.
True or False: A disease is considered communicable when the infectious agent can be transmitted from infected host to new host and establish infection in that host.
When a virus persists inside the host in an inactive state, this is specifically referred to as _____
Disease _____ is the total number of cases of a particular disease within the entire population.
Damage from excess host immune responses is a form of ____ ____
A ____ ____ is a property of a microbe that improves their invasiveness or ability to evade host defenses in order to cause disease.
The collection and keeping of data for a large number of diseases seen by the medical community and reprotable to public health authorities is called ____
epidemic across continents
when prevalence of a disease is increasing beyond what is expected
when occasional cases are reported at irregular intervals
disease that exhibits a
relatively steady frequency over a long period of time in a particular geographic locale
number of people afflicted with a certain disease
the total number of deaths in a population due to a certain disease
as person begins to respond to infection, symptoms decline
time from initial contact with the infectious agent to the appearance of first symptoms; agent is multiplying but damage is insufficient to cause symptoms; several hours to several years
If a nurse transfers a pathogen between patients without becoming infected herself, the nurse has acted as the
A ______ infection is acquired in a hospital
Virulence factors include
A short period early in a disease that manifests with general malaise and achiness is the
The presence of a few bacteria in the blood is termed
A/an ________ is a passive animal transporter of pathogens.
A general term that refers to an increased white blood cell count is
A positive antibody test for HIV would be a _______ of infection
Which of the following would not be a portal of entry?
test the effects of pathogen on humans
cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they
grow in part of the body that is not natural to them
-Pseudomonas sp & Candida albicans
toxic to white blood cells
microbes enter the body and remains confined to a specific tissue
Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are:
The patient's own normal flora
The primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the:
Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a:
An animal such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a:Vector
animals that participate in life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are:
microbes that occupy the body for only short periods
An infection harbored in animals but naturally transmissible to humans