Chapter 13 Questions Flashcards


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1

The best descriptive term for the resident microbes is

commensals

2

Resident microbiota is commonly found in the

urethra

3

Normal resident microbes are absent from the:

lungs

4

The general phenomenon whereby a person's resident microbiota play an important role in helping to protect against intruding microorganisms by limiting attachment sites, and/or altering the local chemical and physiological environment of the body is called

microbial antagonism

5

The human body is colonized at/during the birthing process; in utero the body is sterile.

True

6

Any characteristic or structure of the microbe that increases the ability of the organism to cause infection or a disease state is called a fomite.

False

7

The specific action of hemolysins is to

damage red blood cells

8

The most common resident microbiota in the mouth is Streptococcus species.

true

9

The portal of entry into the human body for the greatest number of pathogens is the:

the respiratory tract

10

The infectious dose is the:

the minimum number of organisms necessary to cause disease

11

Which of the following is(are) considered virulence factor(s)?

-bacterial capsules
-fimbriae
-exotoxins
-all of theseall of these

all of these

12

Endotoxins are only produced by Gram (-) bacteria.

True

13

In the phases of clinical infectious disease, which of the following is a short period marked by mild signs and symptoms?

the prodromal stage

14

A(n) _____ infection is an infection that compounds a pre-existing one

secondary

15

The term ____ infection is used to refer to the initial infection in a previously health individual, which can later be complicated by an additional infection caused by a difference microbe.

primary

16

An infection that remains confined to the initial infection site is called a(n) ____ infection.

localized

17

The portal of entry for pathogens that are transmitted through sexual contact is the _____ tract.

Urogenital

18

True or False: A disease is considered communicable when the infectious agent can be transmitted from infected host to new host and establish infection in that host.

True

19

When a virus persists inside the host in an inactive state, this is specifically referred to as _____

latency

20

Disease _____ is the total number of cases of a particular disease within the entire population.

prevalence

21

Damage from excess host immune responses is a form of ____ ____

indirect damage

22

A ____ ____ is a property of a microbe that improves their invasiveness or ability to evade host defenses in order to cause disease.

virulence factor

23

The collection and keeping of data for a large number of diseases seen by the medical community and reprotable to public health authorities is called ____

surveillance

24

epidemic across continents

pandemic

25

when prevalence of a disease is increasing beyond what is expected

epidemic

26

when occasional cases are reported at irregular intervals

sporadic

27

disease that exhibits a
relatively steady frequency over a long period of time in a particular geographic locale

endemic

28

number of people afflicted with a certain disease

Morbidity rate

29

the total number of deaths in a population due to a certain disease

Mortality rate

30

as person begins to respond to infection, symptoms decline

convalescent period

31

time from initial contact with the infectious agent to the appearance of first symptoms; agent is multiplying but damage is insufficient to cause symptoms; several hours to several years

incubation period

32

If a nurse transfers a pathogen between patients without becoming infected herself, the nurse has acted as the

Passive Carrier

33

A ______ infection is acquired in a hospital

Nosocomial

34

Virulence factors include

A)toxins

B)enzymes

C)capsules

35

A short period early in a disease that manifests with general malaise and achiness is the

sequela

36

The presence of a few bacteria in the blood is termed

bacteremia

37

A/an ________ is a passive animal transporter of pathogens.

C)mechanical vector

38

A general term that refers to an increased white blood cell count is

leukocytosis

39

A positive antibody test for HIV would be a _______ of infection

A)sign

40

Which of the following would not be a portal of entry?

test the effects of pathogen on humans

41

cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they grow in part of the body that is not natural to them
-Pseudomonas sp & Candida albicans

Opportunistic pathogens

42

toxic to white blood cells

leukocidins

43

microbes enter the body and remains confined to a specific tissue

Localized infection

44

Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are:

The patient's own normal flora

45

The primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the:

Reservoir

46

Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a:

Carrier

47

An animal such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a:Vector

Vector

48

animals that participate in life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are:

Biological vectors

49

microbes that occupy the body for only short periods

Transient flora

50

An infection harbored in animals but naturally transmissible to humans

zoonosis