A commensal bacterium
may also be an opportunistic pathogen
Which of the following statements is TRUE
At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship
A nosocomial infection is
acquired during the course of hospitalization
The major significance of Robert Kochs work is that
microorganisms cause disease.
Which of the following is NOT a verified exception in the use of Kochs postulat
Some diseases are noncommunicable.
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection
Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission
involves reproduction of a pathogen in an arthropod vector prior to transmission.
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?
epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world
Focal infections initially start out as
The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
gram-negative cell walls
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota
are present for a relatively short time.
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?
The patient was infected before hospitalization.
One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in
increased susceptibility to disease.
Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection
None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection
Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease
Which of the following is a fomite
a hypodermic needle
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?
Houseflies are an important vector
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT
secondary infection: a long-lasting ill
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
are changes felt by the patient
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
Emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT
The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched
None of the pairs is mismatched
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections
All of the answers are correct
In Figure 14.2, when is the prevalence the highest?
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of
A researcher has performed a prospective study on a disease. To which specific kind of epidemiological study is this referring?
The CDC is located
A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as
A needlestick is an example of
indirect contact transmission by fomite
Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease
All of these are predisposing factors of disease
In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?
urinary tract infections
In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?
both incubation and convalescence
During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.
36) Situation 14.1 is an example of
The etiologic agent of the disease in Situation 14.1 is
The method of transmission of the disease in Situation 14.1 was
Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?
bacteria causing disease
The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of
If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to
Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis
All of these are zoonos
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
The graph in Figure 14.3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates a(n)
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The M in MRSA stands for mannitol