chapter 14

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Microbiology
Chapter 14
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1

A commensal bacterium

may also be an opportunistic pathogen

2

Which of the following statements is TRUE

At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship

3

A nosocomial infection is

acquired during the course of hospitalization

4

The major significance of Robert Kochs work is that

microorganisms cause disease.

5

Which of the following is NOT a verified exception in the use of Kochs postulat

Some diseases are noncommunicable.

6

Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection

botulism

7

Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission

involves reproduction of a pathogen in an arthropod vector prior to transmission.

8

Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?

epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world

9

Focal infections initially start out as

local infections

10

The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to

vaccinations

11

Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?

septicemia

12

Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?

gram-negative cell walls

13

Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

are present for a relatively short time.

14

Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?

The patient was infected before hospitalization.

15

One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in

increased susceptibility to disease.

16

Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection

None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection

17

Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease

tetanus

18

Which of the following is a fomite

a hypodermic needle

19

Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?

Houseflies are an important vector

20

Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT

secondary infection: a long-lasting ill

21

Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms

are changes felt by the patient

22

The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

epidemiology

23

Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?

d

24

Emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT

The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.

25

Which of the following pairs is mismatched

None of the pairs is mismatched

26

Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections

All of the answers are correct

27

In Figure 14.2, when is the prevalence the highest?

February

28

A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of

vehicle transmission

29

A researcher has performed a prospective study on a disease. To which specific kind of epidemiological study is this referring?

descriptive

30

The CDC is located

Atlanta, GA

31

A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as

latent

32

A needlestick is an example of

indirect contact transmission by fomite

33

Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease

All of these are predisposing factors of disease

34

In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?

urinary tract infections

35

In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?

both incubation and convalescence

36

During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.

36) Situation 14.1 is an example of

a zoonosis.

37

The etiologic agent of the disease in Situation 14.1 is

Coxiella burnetii.

38

The method of transmission of the disease in Situation 14.1 was

vehicle

39

Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?

bacteria causing disease

40

The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of

antagonistic bacteria

41

If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to

illness

42

Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis

All of these are zoonos

43

Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a

nosocomial infection

44

The graph in Figure 14.3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates a(n)

epidemic level.

45

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The M in MRSA stands for mannitol