The Urinary System

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1

Which is not a major function of the kidney?

  1. regulation of blood ionic composition
  2. regulation of blood cell size
  3. regulation of blood volume
  4. regulation of blood pressure
  5. regulation of blood pH

B

2

This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.

  1. glycolysis
  2. gluconeogenesis
  3. glucosamine
  4. glucose
  5. calcitriol

B

3

Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?

  1. urea
  2. glucose
  3. insulin
  4. cholesterol
  5. carbon dioxide

A

4

This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter.

  1. adipose capsule
  2. renal capsule
  3. renal hilus
  4. renal cortex
  5. renal medulla

B

5

The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the

  1. renal columns
  2. renal medulla
  3. renal pelvis
  4. calyces
  5. renal papilla

A

6

Which is the correct order of blood flow?

  1. renal artery-segmental artery-interlobular artery-peritubular capillaries- afferent arterioles
  2. interlobar arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaries-arcuate veins
  3. arcuate veins-arcuate arteries- glomerular capillaries- renal vein
  4. renal vein-segmental arteries-interlobar arteries- efferent arterioles
  5. interlobar veins- afferent arterioles- efferent arterioles- glomerular capillaries

B

7

Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?

  1. glomerular capsule, Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT), Collecting duct
  2. Loop of Henle, glomerular capsule, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct
  3. Ascending limb of Loop, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct
  4. Collecting duct, DCT, PCT, Collecting duct, glomerular capsule
  5. PCT, glomerular capsule, DCT, Collecting duct, Loop of Henle

A

8

Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?

  1. glomerular capsule
  2. Loop of Henle
  3. Ascending limb
  4. Collecting duct
  5. Proximal convoluted tubule

E

9

This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.

  1. glomerular capsule
  2. Loop of Henle
  3. Ascending limb
  4. Collecting duct
  5. Renal corpuscle

A

10

This term means the return of substances into the blood stream from the filtrate.

  1. reabsorption
  2. filtration
  3. secretion
  4. excretion
  5. none of the above

A

11

This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.

  1. reabsorption
  2. filtration
  3. secretion
  4. excretion
  5. none of the above

C

12

This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix.

  1. glomerular endothelial cells
  2. basal lamina
  3. pedicels
  4. filtration slites
  5. slit membrane

B

13

This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles.

  1. glomerular filtration rate
  2. tubulomerular feedback
  3. myogenic mechanism
  4. renal autoregulation
  5. capsular hydrostatic pressure

C

14

This occurs when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane, across the cytosol, and then into the interstitial fluid.

  1. paracellular reabsoprtion
  2. transcellular reabsoprtion
  3. apical reasborption
  4. basolateral reabsorption
  5. active transport

B

15

Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule

  1. it is less dense
  2. it has a higher K+ concentration
  3. it is called tubular fluid
  4. all the Na+ is removed
  5. it is headed to the ascending loop

C

16

The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water?

  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 65%
  4. 80%
  5. 99%

C

17

Which of the following is NOT a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?

  1. It increases GFR
  2. It can decrease GFR
  3. It enhances reabsorption of certain ions
  4. It stimulates the release of aldosterone
  5. None of the above

A

18

Urea recycling can cause a buildup of urea in the

  1. Renal capsule
  2. Loop of Henle
  3. Ascending tubule
  4. Renal medulla
  5. Renal pelvis

D

19

Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?

  1. increase, pressure
  2. decrease, volume
  3. increase, sodium levels
  4. decrease, pH
  5. increase, urea

D

20

Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?

  1. increase, potassium
  2. decrease, volume
  3. increase, calcium levels
  4. decrease, pH
  5. increase, sodium

E

21

The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to

  1. urea
  2. water
  3. albumin
  4. sodium
  5. chloride

B

22

An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called

  1. Urinalysis
  2. Filtration study
  3. Concentration study
  4. Diuretic
  5. Osmolarity

A

23

Water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?

  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 75%
  4. 80%
  5. 95%

E

24

This is a test to measure kidney function.

  1. Plasma creatinine
  2. Renal study
  3. Kidney assay
  4. Renal clearance
  5. Hilus study

A

25

This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.

  1. Urethra
  2. Ureter
  3. Descending loop of Henle
  4. Renal hilus
  5. None of the above

B

26

This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers.

  1. Mucosa
  2. Transitional epithelium
  3. Lamina propria
  4. Adventitia
  5. Lamina elastica

C

27

This lies in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder.

  1. Urethral sphincter
  2. Adventitia bundle
  3. Ureter
  4. Internal urethral orifice
  5. Muscularis bundle

D

28
card image

This is composed of dense irregular tissue that runs continuous with the ureter.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

C

29
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This layers main function is to protect the kidney from trauma and hold it in place within the abdominal cavity.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

B

30
card image

This layer runs deep to the peritoneum on the anterior surface of the kidneys.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

A

31
card image

This can be divided into the cortical zone and the juxtamedullary zone.

  1. A
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. G

A

32
card image

Where is the parenchyma?

  1. B
  2. M
  3. C
  4. D
  5. F

C

33
card image

Each kidney can have anywhere from 8 to 18 of these.

  1. I
  2. J
  3. K
  4. L
  5. H

C

34
card image

This structure is the apex of a renal pyramid.

  1. F
  2. D
  3. G
  4. K
  5. L

A

35
card image

This is where the hilum extends into the kidney.

  1. E
  2. D
  3. G
  4. K
  5. L

A

36
card image

Urine formed by the nephrons first drains into these.

  1. H
  2. I
  3. J
  4. K
  5. L

B

37
card image

What two structures comprise the renal corpuscle?

  1. A and B
  2. C and D
  3. E and F
  4. K and L
  5. N and O

A

38
card image

Where is the distal convoluted tubule?

  1. D
  2. E
  3. J
  4. K
  5. L

A

39
card image

Where is the arcuate vein?

  1. E
  2. F
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

D

40
card image

Where is the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. J
  4. K
  5. L

E

41
card image

Where is the corticomedullary junction?

  1. G
  2. J
  3. M
  4. N
  5. O

B

42
card image

Where is the papillary duct?

  1. C
  2. F
  3. H
  4. N
  5. O

D

43
card image

What does line “M” point to?

  1. Arcuate artery
  2. Arcuate vein
  3. Collecting duct
  4. Descending loop
  5. Efferent arteriole

C

44
card image

What is line “C” pointing to?

  1. Distal convoluted tubule
  2. Interlobular artery
  3. Efferent arteriole
  4. Arcuate artery
  5. Corticomedullary junction

C

45
card image

What is line “A” pointing to?

  1. Fenestrations
  2. Pedicels
  3. Filtration slit
  4. Basal lamina
  5. Lumen of the glomerulus

A

46
card image

What is line “B” pointing to?

  1. Fenestrations
  2. Pedicels
  3. Filtration slit
  4. Basal lamina
  5. Lumen of the glomerulus

B

47
card image

What is line “C” pointing to?

  1. Fenestrations
  2. Pedicels
  3. Filtration slit
  4. Basal lamina
  5. Lumen of the glomerulus

C

48
card image

What is line “D” pointing to?

  1. Fenestrations
  2. Pedicels
  3. Filtration slit
  4. Basal lamina
  5. Lumen of the glomerulus

D

49
card image

Fluid flowing from point N in the figure will go to which structure next?

  1. G
  2. H
  3. C
  4. B
  5. K

A

50
card image

Fluid flowing from point G in the figure will go to which structure next?

  1. N
  2. H
  3. I
  4. M
  5. K

C

51
card image

Fluid flowing from point H in the figure will go to which structure next?

  1. L
  2. B
  3. I
  4. G
  5. N

B

52
card image

Fluid flowing from point B in the figure will go to which of the following structures?

  1. J
  2. M
  3. I
  4. G
  5. H

A

53
card image

Which vessel in the diagram is the afferent arteriole?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. L

A

54
card image

Which vessel in the diagram is the interlobular vein?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. L

C

55
card image

Which vessel(s) in the diagram are the vasa recta?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. M
  5. L

E

56
card image

Which vessel in the diagram is the interlobular artery?

  1. D
  2. E
  3. F
  4. L

A

57
card image

Which vessel in the diagram is the arcuate artery?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. L

D

58
card image

Which vessel(s) in the diagram are the peritubular capillaries?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. M
  5. L

D

59

An increase in permeability of the filtration membrane due to disease, injury, or irritation of kidney cells by substances such as bacterial toxins, ether, or heavy metals indicates which condition?

  1. albuminuria
  2. lucosuria
  3. robilinogenuria
  4. ketonuria
  5. bilirubinuria

A

60

Anorexia, starvation, or a diet too low in carbohydrates indicates which condition?

  1. albuminuria
  2. glucosuria
  3. urobilinogenuria
  4. ketonuria
  5. bilirubinuria

D

61

Stress, causing excessive amounts of epinephrine secretion which stimulates glycogen breakdown, indicates which condition? This condition can also indicate diabetes mellitus.

  1. albuminuria
  2. glucosuria
  3. urobilinogenuria
  4. hematuria
  5. bilirubinuria

B

62

Excessive urine concentration of a normal breakdown product of hemoglobin, caused by pernicious anemia, infectious hepatitis, jaundice or cirrhosis, indicates which condition?

  1. albuminuria
  2. glucosuria
  3. urobilinogenuria
  4. hematuria
  5. bilirubinuria

C

63

This substance gives bile its major pigmentation:

  1. ketone bodies
  2. erythrocytes
  3. casts
  4. bilirubin
  5. glucose

D

64

These are tiny masses of material, hardened in the lumen of the urinary tubule and are flushed out when filtrate builds up behind them:

  1. ketone bodies
  2. erythrocytes
  3. casts
  4. microbes
  5. urobilinogen

C

65

Candida albicans and E. coli are which type of abnormal constituent of urine:

  1. ketone bodies
  2. erythrocytes
  3. casts
  4. microbes
  5. urobilinogen

D

66

Which is the normal pH range of urine in humans?

  1. 8.1 – 10.6
  2. 4.6 – 8.0
  3. 1.0 – 3.0
  4. 3.1 – 4.0
  5. 10.0 – 12.0

B

67

What is the normal volume of urine produced in humans?

  1. 1L / hr
  2. 2L / day
  3. 2L / hr
  4. 3L / week
  5. 10L / 24 hours

B

68

What is the normal specific gravity range of urine in humans?

  1. 2.350 – 3.700
  2. 0.002 – 1.000
  3. 4.6 – 8.0
  4. 1.001 – 1.035
  5. 1.04 – 2.60

D

69

This hormone is released when the blood volume increases.

  1. Parathyroid Hormone
  2. Renin
  3. ADH
  4. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
  5. Aldosterone

D

70

Consumption of salty food will cause an increase in this hormone.

  1. Aldosterone
  2. Renin
  3. ANH
  4. Angiotensin-II
  5. ADH

E

71

Absence of angiotensin converting enzyme will lead to

  1. decreased blood pressure
  2. increased blood pressure
  3. will not have any effect on blood pressure
  4. All of these choices
  5. None of these choices

A