Chapter 17 - Microbiology BIOL 2420 Flashcards


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1

What type of immunity results from vaccination?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

D

2

What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

E

3

What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

B

4

Which of the following is the best definition of epitope?

A) specific regions on antigens that interact with T-cell receptors

B) specific regions on antigens that interact with MHC class molecules

C) specific regions on antigens that interact with haptens

D) specific regions on antigens that interact with antibodies

E) specific regions on antigens that interact with perforins

D

5

A human's resistance to canine distemper

A) Innate immunity

B) Naturally acquired active immunity

C) Naturally acquired passive immunity

D) Artificially acquired active immunity

E) Artificially acquired passive immunity

A

6

Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of

A) innate immunity.

B) naturally acquired active immunity.

C) naturally acquired passive immunity.

D) artificially acquired active immunity.

E) artificially acquired passive immunity.

C

7

Immunity due to injection of tetanus toxoid

A) innate immunity.

B) naturally acquired active immunity.

C) naturally acquired passive immunity.

D) artificially acquired active immunity.

E) artificially acquired passive immunity.

D

8

Immunity that is not due to antibodies

A) innate immunity.

B) naturally acquired active immunity.

C) naturally acquired passive immunity.

D) artificially acquired active immunity.

E) artificially acquired passive immunity.

A

9

Immunity due to injection of an antigen

A) innate immunity.

B) naturally acquired active immunity.

C) naturally acquired passive immunity.

D) artificially acquired active immunity.

E) artificially acquired passive immunity.

E

10

Which of the following recognizes antigens displayed on host cells with MHC II?

A) TC cell

B) B cell

C) TH cell

D) Natural killer cell

E) Basophil

C

11

T cells are activated by:

A) Interaction between CD4 and MHC II

B) Interaction between TRCs and MHC II

C) Cytokines released by dentritic cells

D) Cytokines released by B cells

E) Complement

A

12

The specificity of an antibody is due to

A) its valence.

B) the H chains.

C) the L chains.

D) the constant portions of the H and L chains.

E) the variable portions of the H and L chains.

E

13

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?

A) They originate in bone marrow.

B) They have antibodies on their surfaces.

C) They are responsible for the memory response.

D) They are responsible for antibody formation.

E) They recognize antigens associated with MHC I.

E

14

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular immunity?

A) The cells originate in bone marrow.

B) Cells are processed in the thymus gland.

C) It can inhibit the immune response.

D) It includes macrophages

E) None of the above

D

15

Plasma cells are activated by a(n)

A) antigen.

B) T cell.

C) B cell.

D) memory cell.

E) None of the above

A

16

The antibodies found in mucus, saliva, and tears are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

C

17

The antibodies found on of B cells are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

D

18

The antibodies that can bind to large parasites are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

E

19

In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are

A) IgG

B) IgM

C) IgA

D) IgD

E) IgE

B

20

Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

B

21

The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

A

22
card image

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's secondary response to an antigen?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

C

23
card image

In Figure 17.1, the arrow at time d indicates

A) The time of exposure to the same antigen as at time a

B) The secondary response

C) The primary response

D) Exposure to a new antigen

E) None of the above

D

24
card image

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's response to a second antigen?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

E

25

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

A) The variable region of a heavy chain binds with antigen.

B) The variable region of a light chain binds with antigen.

C) The Fc region attaches to a host cell.

D) The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies.

E) None of the above.

D

26

The best definition of antigen is

A) something foreign in the body

B) a chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies

C) a chemical that combines with antibodies

D) a pathogen

E) a protein that combines with antibodies

B

27

The best definitions of an antibody is

A) A serum protein

B) A protein that inactivates or kills an antigen

C) A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen

D) An immunoglobulin

E) None of the above

C

28

The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third step?

A) Antigen-digest goes to surface of APC.

B) APC phagocytizes antigen.

C) B cell is activated.

D) TH cell recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II.

E) TH cell produces cytokines.

D

29
card image

In Figure 17.2, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

E) b and d

D

30
card image

In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

A

31
card image

In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

E) b and d

A

32
card image

In Figure 17.2, what can attach to a host cell?

A) a and c

B) band c

C) b

D) d

E) e

E

33
card image

Figure 17.2 could be all of the following except

A) IgM

B) IgG

C) IgD

D) IgE

E) None of the above

A

34

The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?

A) IgA

B) IgG

C) IgM

D) IgD

E) IgE

C

35

Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?

A) TC

B) TR

C) TH

D) Dendritic cells

E) None of the above

A

36

The following events occur in cellular immunity. What is the third step?

A) Antibodies are produced.

B) Dendritic cell takes up antigen.

C) Antigen enters M cell.

D) TH cell produces cytokines.

E) TH cells proliferate.

E

37

Cytokines released by TH1 cells

A) activate CD8 cells to CTLs.

B) convert TH1 cells to TH2 cells.

C) convert TH2 cells to TH1 cells.

D) kill parasites.

E) convert B cells to T cells.

A

38

Which one of the following causes transmembrane channels in target cells?

A) Antigen

B) Hapten

C) IL-1

D) IL-2

E) Perforin

E

39

Patients with an inherited type of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis have a mutation in the gene that codes for

A) Apoptosis

B) IgE antibodies

C) Helper T cells

D) ADCC

E) Phagocytosis

A

40

Chemical signals sent between leukocytes are

A) TCRs

B) Interferons

C) Interleukins

D) Tumor necrosis factor

E) Colony-stimulating factor

C

41

All of the following are true about natural killer cells except

A) They destroy virus-infected cells.

B) They destroy tumor cells.

C) They destroy cells lacking MHC I.

D) They are stimulated by an antigen.

E) None of the above.

D

42

An antibody's Fc region can be bound by

A) Antibodies.

B) Macrophages.

C) Helper T cells.

D) B cells.

E) None of the above.

B

43

Antigens coated with antibodies are susceptible to

A) Further antibody attack

B) Phagocytosis

C) Helper T cells

D) B cells

E) None of the above

B

44

Cell death caused by perforin and granzymes is caused by

A) CD8 cells

B) TH1 cells

C) TH2 cells

D) B cells

E) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

E

45

IL-2, produced by TH cells,

A) activates macrophages.

B) stimulates TH cell maturation.

C) causes phagocytosis.

D) activates antigen-presenting cells.

E) none of the above

B

46

Antigen-antibody binding may result in all of the following except

A) Agglutination of the antigens

B) Complement activation

C) IL-2 production

D) Neutralization of the antigen

E) Opsonization os the antigen

C

47

Apoptosis results in significant leakage of cellular contents.

True/False

False

48

Cytokines are protein-based chemical messengers that allow for communication between cells of the immune system.

True/False

True

49

Only dendritic cells produce interleukins.

True/False

False

50

The production of interferons at an infection site is critical for chemotaxis.

True/False

False

51

Cytokine storms negatively impact human health.

True/False

True

52

The variable region of the antibody is solely responsible the significant diversity of antigen targets.

True/False

False

53

Plasma cells will eventually differentiate into memory cells.

True/False

False

54

Memory cells do not require B cell receptors.

True/False

False

55

The implementation of vaccinations occurred prior to experimental support for the germ theory of disease.

True/Fasle

True

56

When haptens attach to carrier molecules, an epitope forms on hapten which then can be bound to antibody.

True/False

False