Molecular Biology

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Campbell Biology, 11th Ed
Chapters 10-17
Exam 3
updated 2 years ago by Artie_Fitzgerald
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1

Steps to convert DNA sequence to amino acid sequence

-mRNA complementary to DNA (U replaces T)

- RNA assembled in 3'-5' direction in DNA transcribed 5'-3' direction in RNA

- divide into 3 letter codon 5'-3' direction

- find codon to identify 3 letter abbreviation for amino acid that corresponds to each codon

2

Translation

- performed by ribosomes of reading mRNA and a synthesizing protein

- RNA as amino acid and binds to codon of mRNA to tRNA

- initiation, the translation start codon of mRNA

- amino acid attached to tRNA by enzymes

3

Role of RNA in protein synthesis

Transcription - pre-mRNA, sn-RNA, mRNA

Translation - rRNA, tRNA

Not used - RNA primer

4

Purpose of cell cycle in mitosis

Create two genetically identical daughter cells from one parent cell

5

How cancer cells are related in mitosis

Cancer is the result of uncontrolled mitosis

6

What happens ONLY during S-Phase of interphase of mitosis

Chromosomes duplicate to form sister chromatids

7

Equation for 2 homologous pairs of chromosomes in mitosis

2n=2

8

Where does meiosis occur

Exclusively in reproductive organs

9

Mitosis of a diploid cell results in

Daughter nuclei that are also diploid

10

Roles of mRNA

- produced after steps of RNA processing

- template for protein synthesis

- carries genetic info from nucleus to cytoplasm

11

Translation

creates a polypeptide (sequence of amino acids) based on sequence of nucleotides in a mRNA molecule

12

Transcription

Create an mRNA molecule based on the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule

13

Carbon Fixation

- Incorporation of carbon into inorganic compounds, begins with CO2 from air into organic molecules present in chloroplast

- Occurs in Calvin Cycle in stroma

14

Mutations

Changes in genetic material of a cell

15

Point Mutations

Chemical changes in just one base pair

16

Nucleotide Substitutions

- Silent

- Missense

- Nonsense

17

Nucleotide Insertion or Deletion - Frameshift Mutations

- Insertion results in nonsense

- Deletion results in missense

18

3 steps in translation

-Initiation - start codon binds with tRNA with amino acid MET

- Elongation - mRNA code is read and polypeptide built correctly

- Termination - stop codon binds to a release factor and a polypeptide is released

19

Steps in Elongation

- H-Bonds to peptide

- Peptide bonds to connect peptides

- mRNA shifts making more codons available to start cycle again

20

Function of tRNA and ribosomes

-tRNA brings specific amino acid to matching codon in the ribosomes

- ribosome translation happens polypeptide is form

21

How RNA is modified after transcription

- Info for coding is non-coded introns regions

- Exons for coding regions expressed

- Splicing takes out introns and connects exons together

22

Caps and Tails (AAA)

- Tail - adenine nucleotides at end forms a tail of RNA (AAA)

- 5' cap added begins transcription recognizing signal for ribosomes to bind to mRNA

- 3' end bind with AAA

23

General Role of Transcription and Translation

Transcription unit, segment of DNA to be transcribed into RNA

- Initiation - involved promotes TATA box and transcription factors

- Elongation - RNA polymerase adds nucleus to the 3' end of the growing molecule

- Termination - specific sequence of DNA signals transcription to stop

- RNA transcript is released

24

Role of Promoter and Terminator

- Starts with primer ends with terminator

- Poly A tails in transcription unit DNA sequence that signals transcription to translation AAA

25

How RNA polymerase recognized where transcription should begin

- RNA polymerase does not need any primers, does not require a promoter

- Promoter, beginning of gene, a specific nucleotide sequence nucleotide sequence nucleotide sequence that signals the transcription start point

- TATA box is an important promoter in eukaryotes

26

Codon

- Triplet code series of non-overlapping three nucleus words transcribes words of a gene

(Transcription)

27

Anaerobic Respiration

Catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecule other than oxygen accept electrons at the downhill end of the electron transport chain

28

G2 of Interphase

- Chromosomes duplicated, uncondensed

- Two centrosomes with two centrioles formed by duplication of a single centrosome regions that organize microtubules of spindle

- NE encloses nucleus

29

RNA processing

RNA polymerase are joined to one another by spliceosomes, exons are expressed, 5' cap consists of modified guanine nucleotide

30

Flow of Information

DNA-RNA-Protein

31

Role of amino acids in a poly chain

Three base sequence of mRNA

32

mRNA

Before molecule of mRNA can be translated into a protein on the ribosome, mRNA must be transcribed from sequence of DNA

33

Aerobic Respiration

Catabolic for organic molecule using O2 as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain, ultimately producing ATP, most efficient catabolic pathway used in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms

34

Light Reaction

- Occurs in the thylakoid

- Split H20 and releases O2

- reduce electron acceptor NADP+ to NADPH

- generate ATP from ADP by phosphorylation

- NAD+ accepts high energy electrons

35

Prophase

- Chromosomes begin to condense

- Duplicated

- Nucleus intact

- Coiling happens

- Mitotic Spindle forms

36

Telophase and Cytokinesis

- 2 daughter nuclei form

- chromosomes less condensed

- mitosis complete

- cytokinesis divides cell

- separate unduplicated chromosomes

37

Anaphase

- NO NE

- each chromosome becomes 2 daughter chromosomes

- cell begins to elongate

- microtubules shorten, pulling chromosomes toward opposite poles

38

Metaphase

- centrosomes at opposite end of cell

- microtubules now attached to kinetochores at each sister chromatin

- align down plate

39

Prometa Phase

- NE breaks up

- attaching to kinetochores

- most condensed form

- beginning to line up

- centrosomes move begin to connect

40

What occurs during Calvin Cycle

- CO2 is reduced

- ATP is hydrolyzed and NADPH is oxidized

- CO2 combines with 5 carbon compound

41

Energy used to produce ATP comes from

movement of H+ through membrane, chemiosmosis diffusion of H+ through ATP synthesis provides energy to produce ATP

42

NAD+ in photosynthesis

is reduced then carries electrons to the Calvin Cycle

43

Relation between Light Reaction and the Calvin Cycle

NADH provides reducing power by donating electrons and ATP provides energy which is converted to ADP

44

During Photosynthesis and Electrochemical Gradient

Is formed across the Thylakoid Membrane, in chloroplasts the electron transport chain pumps protons from the stroma to the thylakoid space, these locations are separated by thylakoid membranes

45

Input and Output of Carbon Fixation

Inputs - CO2, ATP, NADPH

Outputs- Sugar, ADP, NADPH+, Pi

Light dependent reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP and DANPH, which are then used in glucose synthesis during Calvin Cycle

46

Carbon Fixation

Cycle begins by incorporating CO2 from air into organic molecules already present in chloroplast. Calvin Cycle, then reduces the fixed carbon into carbs by the addition of electrons.

47

Histone

Highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cells, nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units calles nucleosomes

48

Fundamental differences between producers and consumers

Autotrophs, self feeders - sustain self without eating anything derived from other living beings, produce inorganic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from their environment - Producers

Heterotrophs - other feeders, rely on other organisms for organic carbon from which to build cells and obtain energy - Consumers, may eat producers, other consumers including dead producers or consumers

49

Calvin Cycle

Carbon enters cycles as CO2 and leaves as GP3, 3 revolutions to produce one G3P, uses all ATP and NADPH from light reaction, products are ADP and NADP+

50

Light Reaction

Converts light energy to chemical energy, uses ATP and NADPH splits H2O releases CO2 into atmosphere

51

Autrotroph

Self-feeders, producers, creates organic carbon molecules from inorganic CO2 and other inorganic starting materials

52

Meiosis II

All cells are haploid

53

Stomata

Microscopic pores in leaf, CO2 enters and O2 exits

54

Heterotrophs

Rely on other organisms for organic compounds, consumers

55

Chloroplast

Cellular organelle (plastid) where photosynthesis takes place

56

Mesophyll

Chloroplasts found mainly in cells, tissue in interior of leaf

57

Stroma

Chloroplast has 2 membranes surrounded in a dense fluid

58

Thylakoid

Connected sac in chloroplast which compose a 3rd membrane system, separates stroma from thylakoid space

59

Why plants are green

Pigments can only observe certain wavelengths of light, absorb blue and red the rest is reflected, we can see green, the rest of the visible light is reflected

60

Photosystems

Biochemical reaction in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

61

Photophosphorylation

Synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi occurs in a plant using radiant energy absorbed during photosynthesis

62

Pigments & Wavelenghs

Chlorophyll can only absorb certain wavelengths of lights

63

Importance of a cell division

Reproduction

Growth

Tissue Repair

64

Genome

Entirety of a cells genetic material

65

Chromosome

Packaged typically very long segment of DNA, involved proteins called histones in eukaryotes

66

Fermentation Vs Cellular Respiration

Both processes produce ATP for cell use

Fermentation does not use O2

67

How NADH is cycled back to NAD+

O2 is not present, pyruvate undergoes fermentation, NADH and H+ from glycolysis will be reduced back NAD+ so glycolysis can continue

68

NADH in fermentation and Cellular Respiration

Acts as an electron shuttle, when O2 not present

69

During photosynthesis

O2 is produced from H2O via a series of reactions associated with photosystem II

70

G2 of Interphase

Centrisomes with centriole pairs

NE

Nucleus

Chromosomes duplicated and uncondensed

71

Chromatin

Entire complex of DNA and protein that is the building of material of chromosome

72

Feedback Inhibition

Phenomenon where the output of a process is used as an input to control the behavior of the process itself, oftentimes limiting the production of more product. Although negative feedback is used in the context of inhibition, negative feedback may also be used for promoting a certain process.

73

Fate of CO2 in photosynthesis

Appear in sugar molecules and in H2O

74

Source of O2 in photosynthesis

H20, splitting H2O

75

Chlorophyll molecule are in which part of the chloroplast

Thylakoid Membranes, embedded

76

How does CO2 enter the leaf

Through stomata

77

In photosynthesis plants use carbon from ____________to make sugar and other organic moleclues

CO2

78

Stacks of thylakoids

In higher plants thylakoids are organized into a granum-stroma membrane assembly. A granum (plural grana) is a stack of thylakoid discs. Chloroplasts can have from 10 to 100 grana. Grana are connected by stroma thylakoids, also called intergranal thylakoids or lamellae.

79

Stomata

any of the minute pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of a plant, forming a slit of variable width that allows movement of gases in and out of the intercellular spaces

80

Mesophyll

Chloroplasts are found, tissue in the interior of the leaf

81

Kinetochure

Complex of proteins with the centromere of a chromosome during cell division to which the microtubules attach

82

Mitotic Spindle

Segregates chromosomes to 2 daughter cells during mitosis, major structural element of the spindle are microtubules

83

Centrosome

Organelle near nucleus of a cell that contains the centrioles in an animal cell and form which the spindle fibers develop in cell division

84

Centromere

Each sister chromatid has a centrosome region made up repetitive sequences in the chromosomal DNA where the chromatid is attached most closely to its sister chromatid

85

Photosystem

System is formed by reaction center, light harvesting complexes primarily electron acceptors that cluster located in thylakoid membrane

86

Sister Chromatid

Each duplicated chromosome consists of 2, which are joined copies of the original chromosome

87

When chloroplast absorb light

Electrons become excited, has more energy potential

88

Role of NAD+ in photosynthesis

Forms NAD+ to be used in Calvin Cycle

89

DNA polymerase

Adds nucleotides after Primase, attaches nucleotides to form DNA strand, replaces RNA with DNA

90

DNA Ligase

Enzyme joins fragments with sugar backbone to continuous DNA strand

91

Primase

Starts complimentary RNA chain, enzyme puts down primers as starting points for copying DNA

92

Lead and Lagging

Can't move in same direction, because moving in 5' - 3' direction fragments find primer synthesize, need a naked prime end

93

Topiosomerase

Protein, swivels breaks down and rejoins DNA strand

94

Lagging Strand

Made in fragments, okazaki, 5'-3' direction copying DNA, needs a naked 3' prime end

95

Helicase

Enzyme, that unzips double helix of DNA at replication fork

96

RNA Primer

Creates a 3' end start point, by primase drops on a naked 3' end for DNA Polymerase, duplication of DNA will begin here

97

Leading Strand

5'-3' direction of sequence of DNA being copied, new DNA copied

98

Origins of Replication

Short stretches of a sequence of DNA, begins at specific locations within chromosomes, where DNA is copied,

99

Role of tRNA

Major structural component of ribosomes, involved in binding of both RNA and tRNA

100

Role of tRNA

Implement genetic code, translates info from sequence of nucleotides to sequence of amino acid that make protein

101

Plants as producers

Produce inorganic CO2 into organic molecules

102

Missense

Nonsense

Silent

Causes wild type amino acid replicated with different amino acid

Stop codon

No change in wild type amino acid sequence

103

Frameshift mutations have severe effects because

Substitution missense affects only 1 codon, frameshift missense affects all codons downstream

104

A swaps with T

Silent or Missense

105

Anticodons on tRNA that binds mRNA codon

UUU

106

True of tRNA

transfer amino acid to growing polypeptide change, molecule involved in translation of mRNA

107

RIbozyme

biological catalyst made of RNA

108

Introns & Extrons

Introns are removed

Extrons are expressed

109

Functions of RNA polymerase

Unwinds double helix and adds nucleotides to growing strand of RNA

110

Where does RNA polymerase begin transcribing a gene into mRNA

after Promoter

111

Flow of information

DNA-RNA-Protein

112

Mutated DNA sequences produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from normal protein

Addition or Deletion

113

1 addition and 1 deletion

would not change reading frame of gene sequence that follows mutation

114

codon specifies 1 amino acid

yes, only 1

115

Ribosomes are

found in cytoplasm, site of translation

116

RNA segments are joined by another spliceosomes

Exons, expressed regions

117

spliceosomes are composed of

small RNAs and proteins

118

During RNA processing _______________added to 3' end of RNA

Poly A tail added, long string of adenine

119

During RNA processing _______________added to 5' end of RNA

5' cap consists of guanamine

120

direction of synthesis of a RNA transcript

5'-3'

121

Promoter

region of DNA at which process of transcription begins

122

RNA polymerase

untwists a portion of DNA double helix

123

Codon sequence of __________ bases and specifies ____________will be installed into polypeptide chains

3....amino acids

124

RNA processing converts RNA transcript into

mRNA

125

polypeptide ares assembled from

amino acids, monomers

126

process which pre-mRNA is edited to mRNA

RNA processing

127

process which information in a strand of mRNA is used to construct protien

translation, info encoded in RNA is used to synthesize a polypeptide

128

in a nucleosome, DNA is wrapped around

histones

129

elongation of leading strand during DNA synthesis

depends on action of DNA polymerase

130

what holds DNA strands apart

single stranded DNA binding proteins

131

role of ligase in elongation of lagging strand

joins okasaki fragments

132

leading - lagging

leading strand synthesized in same direction as movement of fork

lagging strand opposite direction

133

old DNA strand is __________for assembly of a new DNA strand

template

134

primase

responsible for catalyzing formation of RNA primer

135

synthesis of a new strand begins with synthesis of

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting strand, synthesis of DNA stand begins with formation of RNA primer

136

after DNA replication

each new strand of DNA is double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

137

short segments of newly synthesized DNA at joined into continuous strand by

ligase

138

an old DNA strand is used as a __________for the assembly of a new DNA strand

template

139

synthesis of a new strand begins with synthesis of a

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting strand

140

why is new DNA strand complimentary to 3'-5' strands assembled in short segments

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in 5'-3' direction

141

action of helix creates

replication forks and replication bubbles, fork is transition between paired and unpaired DNA strands

142

first step in replication of DNA is catalyzed by

helicase

143

after DNA replication

each new DNA double helix consists of one old and one new DNA strand

144

in DNA helix A pairs with _______ of complementary strand and G pairs with ________of complementary strand

T.....C, base pairing

145

single strand binding proteins

prevents H-Bonding, binds after replication fork

146

topiosomerase

binds ahead of replication fork, breaks covalent bonds in DNA backbone

147

helicase

breaks H-Bonds, binds at replication fork

148

chemical structure of DNA and its nucleotides

5'en H-Bond 3'end,

deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group in 5'end

nitrogenous base in 3'end

3' end - 5'end

149

materials DNA polymerase needs in order to synthesize a complete strand of DNA

all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (A C T G)

single stranded DNA template

3' OH end of a new DNA strand

150

addition of nucleotide onto DNA strand is endergonic_________provides energy to drive reaction

release of pyrophosphate from incoming nucleotide, then hydrolysis of pyrophosphorate to inorganic phosphate

151

a hydroxyl is present at 3' end of growing DNA strand, what is present of 5'end

phosphate group, joins next deosyribonucleotide onto growing strand

152

role of DNA polymerase during synthesis of DNA

enzyme that catalyzes addition of nucleotide onto the 3' end of a growing DNA strand, using existing strand as a template

153

DNA content is halved during

Meiosis I & II

154

During meiosis II cells are

haploid

155

DNA is made of

genes

traits are heritable characterists,

156

chromosomes specifies position on locus

building material of chromatids, passed on in gametes, found in nucleus

157

sister chromatids separate from each other

during mitosis & meiosis II

158

what happens during meiosis but not mitosis

synapsis, pairing of homologous pairs of chromosomes only occurs during prophase I

159

mitosis results in formation of how many cells.....

meiosis results in formation of how many cells.......

2 diploid cells

4 haploid cells

160

a diploid cells whose somatic cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing________chromosomes

16

161

at end of meiosis I

cells are haploid

162

normal human gametes carry________chromosomes

23

163

human gametes are formed by

meiosis

164

plant cells reproduce by

asexual reproduction

165

two sister chromatids are joined at centromere prior to meiosis

barring mutation, must be identical

166

chromosomes has 2 chromatids joined at centromere, what process led to this

formed by duplication of a chromosome, formation of chromatids

167

diploid cells

contain 2 sets of chromosomes

168

diploid cells

cell contains 2 copies of each chromosome 1 from each parent

169

recombinant chromosomes

each chromosome in gametes are composed of material derived form both parents

170

processes led to most genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms

crossing over

random fertilization

independent assortment of chromosomes in meiosis

171

during________a spindle forms in a haploid cell

prophase I

172

at end of __________& cytokinesis there are 4 haploid cells

telophase II

173

during__________chromosomes align single file along equator of a haploid cell

metaphase II

174

homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during

anaphase I

175

synapsis occurs during

prophase I

176

end of ____________& cytokinesis haploid cells contain chromosomes each consist of 2 sister chromatids

telophase I and cytokinesis

177

during________sister chromatids separate

anaphase II

178

meiosis II typically produces________each of which is___________

4...haploid

179

meiosis I produces___________cells each of which is

2......haploid

180

in mitosis, metaphase contains 20 sister chromatids, how many chromosomes will be present in G1 cell

10

181

in mitosis, diploid cell with 5 chromosome pairs (2n=10) how many sister chromatids will be found in nucleus of prophase

20

182

in mitosis, interphase is best described as what portion of the cell life

resting stage before cell division, accounts for 90% of cell cycle

183

cell a has 1/2 as much DNA as b, c, & d in a mitotically active tissue, cell a is most likely in

G1

184

in mitosis, cells line up on cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of cell and nuclei are forming on either side of cell plate

cytokinesis

185

in mitosis, m phase checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle, if this does not happen, cells would likely be arrested in

metaphase

186

in mitosis what happens during interphase

replication of DNA

187

in mitosis, during what phase do chromatids become chromosomes

anaphase

188

in mitosis metaphase is characterized by

alignment of chromosomes on the equator of the cell

189

in, mitosis name of microtubule organizing center in animal cells, as an identifiable structure present during all phases of cell life

centrosomes

190

in mitosis G1 is associate with

normal growth and development

191

in, mitosis what phase does the cell grow and replicate both its organelles and its chromosomes

interphase

192

in mitosis, both the contents of the nucleus and cytoplasm are divided

mitotic phase

193

in, mitosis during prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consist of

2 chromosomes and 4 chromatids

194

in mitosis, spindle fibers attach to kinetochures during what phase

prometaphase

195

centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged during

anaphase

196

chromosomes become visible during what cycle in mitosis

prophase

197

cytokinesis often, but not always accompanies

telophase

198

what phase are nucleoli present in

interphase

199

eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of

DNA and protein

200

what organism did process of photosynthesis most likely originate

prokaryotes

201

what molecule is the main product of the calvin cycle

G3P and sugar

202

where does calvin cycle take place

stroma

203

why do leaves change color

other pigments such as carotenoids are still present in the leaves

204

function of light reaction of photosynthesis

conversion of solar energy to chemical energy

205

conditions photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in most plants

photosynthesis only occurs in the light cycle

cellular respiration occurs only in the dark cycle

206

light reactions of photosynthesis use_______and produce___________

water.....NADPH in calvin cycle

207

outputs for photosynthesis

c6h12o6, 6O2

208

inputs for photosynthesis

CO2 , light energy, water

209

photosynthesis produces

O2, G3P