produce saliva; also helps break down carbohydrates (with salivary amylase; and lubricates the passage of food down from the oro-pharynx to the esophagus to the stomach.
biggest producer of saliva;
saliva travels through the gland into here
salivary gland ; less fatty than parotid
opening to nasopharynx
h allows a person to breathe through the nose.
hard/ soft pallete
The soft palate is moveable; closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway.
hard: help facilitate the movement of food backwards towards the larynx
auditory (eustachian tubes)
is to ventilate the middle ear space, ensuring that its pressure remains at near normal environmental air pressure
connects the pharynx (throat) to the stomach; functions as the conduit for food and liquids that have been swallowed into the pharynx to reach the stomach.
houses the vocal folds, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is essential for phonation
development of T-lymphocytes or T cells
the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration.
hormones;Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine.
is the primary muscle used in the process of inspiration, or inhalation
o2 --> co2
peritoneum- parietal / visceral
is that portion that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
pleura - parietal / visceral
P: lines pleural cavity
v: covers surface of the lungs
are the main passageway into the lungs
making proteins and blood clotting factors, manufacturing triglycerides and cholesterol, glycogen synthesis, and bile production.
It acts as a filter for blood as part of the immune system.
plays a vital role in the chemical digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the small intestine.
Most of the nutrients present in food are absorbed by the jejunum before being passed on to the ileum for further absorption.
is mainly to absorb whatever products of digestion were not absorbed by the jejunum.
an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.
is to store and concentrate bile, a yellow-brown digestive enzyme produced by the liver
common bile duct
carry bile from thegallbladder and empty it into the upper part of the small intestine
It then joins the common bile duct, which meets pancreatic duct before it empties into the duodenum
drains bile from the liver
colon - all parts
reabsorb fluids and process waste products from the body and prepare for its elimination
absorb fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion
acts as a temporary storage site for feces
is the last part of the digestive tract. is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid.
is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and transmit the useless waste material from the body
where 90% of the digestion and absorption of food occurs, the other 10% taking place in the stomach and large intestine.
stomach - all parts
secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line thestomach. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion. The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine
ileo- cecal valve
limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum
supply pancreatic juice provided from the exocrine pancreas which aids in digestion
acts as a valve to controls the flow of partially digested food from the stomach to the small intestine
attaches your intestines to the wall of your abdomen and holds them in place
anterior (superior, cephalic) vena cava
s- brings deox blood from body to heart. veins from head feed into it... then will empty into right atrium of heart
posterior (inferior, caudial) vena cava
carries deox blood from lower body to heart
subclavian artery and vein
empty blood from the upper extremities and then carry it back to the heart
internal thoracic artery and vein
is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts
supplies oxygenated blood to the head, neck and arm regions of the body.
supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, stomach, abdominal esophagus, spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas.
major blood vessel in the digestive system
supplies ox blood to genitals/ bladder region
external iliac artery
provides the main blood supply to the legs
common iliac vein
They drain blood from the pelvis and lower limbs.
hepatic portal vein
is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver
it allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver
It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs.
jugular (external and internal)
e-receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the craniumand the deep parts of the face
i-collects blood from the brain and the superficial parts of the face and neck
carotid (common, external, internal, and carotid body)
These arteries transfer blood to the structures inside and outside of the skull.
blood to bicep/tricep area
renal artery and vein
a-carries oxygenated blood to your kidneys.
v-drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys
umbilical arteries and vein
The umbilical vein carries oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the placenta to the fetus, and the umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated, nutrient-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta
aorta (arch and dorsal)
a-distributes blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body
d-give branches to the yolk-sac, and are continued backward through the body-stalk as the umbilical arteries to the villi of the chorion
is a veinrunning superiorly in the lower thoracic region
scattered lymph nodes
It is involved in protecting the body against infection, by delivering immune cells, known as lymphocytes
pulmonary arteries and veins
a- carries blood from right ventircle to lungs
coronary arteries and veins
supply blood to/away the heart muscle
right and left auricles (atria)
is the chamber where incoming blood from the major vein of the circulatory system (vena cava) brings deoxygenated blood into the heart. The right atrium (auricle) receives the blood and pushes it into the the right ventricle, which then transports the blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
l-collect this blood and pump it to the left ventricle, which in turn pumps the blood to the body's tissues
right and left ventricles
r- responsible for pumping deox blood to lungs
l- recieves ox blood from left atrium
pericardium- parietal and visceral
Both of these layers function in lubricating the heart to prevent friction during heart activity
They produce oocytes (eggs) for fertilisation and they produce the reproductive hormones, oestrogen and progesterone.
uterine (fallopian tubes) aka oviducts
is the tube that links the ovary to the uterus and which the ovulated oocyte travels down to become fertilised by sperm present in the female tract
uterus (horns and body)
They are one of the points of attachment for the round ligament of uterus
allow flow of menstrual blood from the uterus into the vagina, and direct the sperms into the uterus during intercourse
receives the penis during sexual intercourse and also serves as a conduit for menstrual flow from the uterus. During childbirth, the baby passes through the vagina
he ventral part of the cloaca after its separation from the rectum, giving rise to the lower part of the bladder in both sexes, to the prostatic portion of the male urethra, and to the urethra and vestibule in the female.
covers the opening of the vagina.
are the male gonads — the primary male reproductive organs.
It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes.
aids in the descent of the gonads (both testes and ovaries).
carries sperm from the testes to the ductus deferens in the male reproductive system
vas (ductus) deferens
their purpose is to carry ejaculatory sperm out of the epididymis. To do this
Function. The structures which pass through the canals differ between males and females: in males: the spermatic cord and its coverings + the ilioinguinal nerve. in females: the round ligament of the uterus + the ilioinguinal nerve.
The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm
Semen combines fluid elements from the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and vas deferens.
bulbo- urethral glands
makes the precum
is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body
Located at the top of each kidney, the adrenal glands produce hormones that help the body control blood sugar, burn protein and fat, react to stressors like a major illness or injury, and regulate blood pressure.
eye with lids
vestigal nictitating membrane
that protects and moisten the eye without losing visibility.
umbilical cord region