Exam 5 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?

Assists in the synthesis of vasodilators

2

Which of the following is caused by the chemical reactions of gases of the respiratory system?

Regulation of pH

3

The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the _________.

larynx

4

The nose is divided into right and left halves called the __________.

nasal fossae

5

Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?

Vestibular and vocal

6

What are the most numerous cells in the lungs?

Dust cells

7

Each alveolus is surrounded by a web of blood capillaries supplied by the _________.

pulmonary artery

8

Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?

Larygopharynx

9

What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?

Their shape

10

Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?

Left main bronchus

11

The heart indents into the __________ of the left lung.

cardiac notch

12

The heart indents into the __________ of the left lung.

lobes

13

Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except the _________.

epiglottis

14

Which of the following cartilages is largest?

Thyroid cartilage

15

Which law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases?

Dalton's

16

In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?

Bronchiole diameter

17

Which of the following is the term for the lungs resistance to expansion?

Pulmonary compliance

18

The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the __________.

inspiratory reserve volume

19

How is the vital capacity calculated?

Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

20

Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?

Kussmaul respiration

21

Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except _________.

carbonate

22

Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a good samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?

There is a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood.

23

During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?

Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

24

Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?

An increase in membrane thickness

25

The addition of CO2 to the blood generates __________ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.

hydrogen

26

Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?

Erythrocyte count

27

In the air we breathe, which gas is found in the highest concentration?

Nitrogen

28

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to __________ oxygen molecules.

4

29

Normally, the systemic arterial blood has a PO2 of ___________ mm Hg, a PCO2 of ___________ mm Hg, and a pH of ___________.

95; 40; 7.4

30

Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?

Carbonic anhydrase

31

In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?

20% to 25%

32

Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?

Hypoxia

33

Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?

Ischemic hypoxia

34

Which of the following is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum?

Chronic bronchitis

35

Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?

Sickle-cell disease

36

Which of the following is a lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli?

Emphysema

37

In which condition are the lungs infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?

Tuberculosis

38

Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?

Adenocarcinoma

39

Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in which condition?

Ondine's curse

40

Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?

Acute rhinitis

41

Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid what condition?

Oxygen toxicity

42

Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called _________.

decompression sickness

43

The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in the ___________.

medulla oblongata

44

Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __________ of the respiratory tract.

goblet cells

45

The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___________ than in any other form.

bicarbonate ions

46

Among its other purposes, how is the Valsalva maneuver used?

To aid in defecation and urination

47

Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?

Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.

48

Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is __________ mL/min.

4200

49

Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is __________ mL.

4700

50

The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity.

FALSE

51

Respiratory arrest is an irreversible condition.

FALSE

52

The pleurae and pleural fluid help prevent the spread of pulmonary infection to the pericardium.

TRUE

53

Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons.

FALSE

54

The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide.

FALSE

55

Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa.

TRUE

56

According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2.

FALSE

57

Erythrocytes do not carry out aerobic respiration; thus, they do not consume any of the oxygen they are transporting.

TRUE

58

Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate.

FALSE

59

Output from higher brain centers can bypass both the DRG and VRG and go directly to __________, which controls the accessory muscles of respiration.

spinal integration centers

60

Which of the following issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?

DRG

61

Which center bears the primary responsibility for generating the respiratory rhythm, but is influenced by several other centers?

VRG

62

The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?

Central chemoreceptors

63

Emotional states are integrated by the __________, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.

PRG

64

If one inspires through their nose, which of the following answers has the correct order of structures the air would move through?

Nares → Vestibule → Nasal Cavity → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Laryngopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary Bronchus → Secondary Bronchus → Tertiary Bronchus → Bronchiole → Terminal Bronchiole → Respiratory Bronchiole → Alveolar Duct → Alveolar Sac → Alveolus

65

Upon inspiration, what is the name of the air in the conducting zone that is not available for gas exchange?

Anatomical dead space

66

The anatomical dead space is greatest in which of the following situations?

After swerving to narrowly avoid an accident while driving

67

Air consists of about 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% water. At sea level, (760 mmHg) what is the PCO2?

0.3 mm Hg

68

Which law states that the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of the individual gases?

Dalton's

69

How is alveolar air different than inspired air?

Alveolar air has a higher PH2O than inspired air.

70

Metabolically active tissues have which of the following sets of conditions that shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right?

↓ PO2, ↑ PCO2, ↑ temperature, ↑ BPG

71

Conditions around metabolically active tissues do what to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?

Shift it right

72

Hypocapnia will lead to which of the following conditions?

Hypoventilation due to alkalosis

73

What is the least common but most dangerous form of lung cancer?

Small-cell carcinoma

74

After the terminal bronchi air enters the alveoli next.

FALSE

75

The serratus anterior is active in eupnea.

FALSE

76

The expansion of the lungs during inspiration generates a pressure gradient causing air to flow into the lungs. This is an example of Boyle's law.

TRUE

77

In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by __________.

deaminating amino acids

78

A byproduct of protein catabolism, __________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.

urea

79

Which organ system excretes nitrogenous wastes?

The urinary system

80

Which organ system does not excrete waste?

The cardiovascular system

81

Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?

They release waste into the bloodstream.

82

The __________ is not an organ of the urinary system.

liver

83

Which of the following is not true about the anatomy of the urinary system?

The kidneys are at equal heights within the pelvic cavity.

84

The medial concavity of the kidney is called the __________, which admits the renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and ureter.

hilum

85

A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?

Albuminuria

86

The __________ innervation of the kidneys reduces urine production, while the function of its __________ innervation is unknown.

sympathetic; parasympathetic

87

The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as the __________.

fibrous capsule

88

A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of __________.

one pyramid and the overlying cortex

89

A renal pyramid voids urine into the __________.

minor calyx

90

Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?

Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.

91

The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the __________.

glomerulus

92

The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney.

1.2 million

93

Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?

Interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.

94

Blood plasma is filtered in the __________.

renal corpuscle

95

Which of the following form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?

Podocytes

96

Which of the following is not composed of cuboidal epithelium?

The thin segment of the nephron loop

97

Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?

Juxtamedullary nephrons

98

In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as __________.

tubular fluid

99

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.

proximal convoluted tubule

100

In a healthy kidney, very little __________ is filtered by the glomerulus.

protein

101

Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?

Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

102

The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as __________.

the myogenic mechanism

103

In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.

angiotensin II

104

Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg.

20 mm Hg out

105

Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________, to form angiotensin I.

liver

106

Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of one's nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.

proximal convoluted tubules

107

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

Hydrogen ions

108

Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in __________.

appearance of that solute in the urine

109

Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone?

Decreased urine volume

110

Aldosterone acts on the __________.

distal convoluted tubule

111

Natriuretic peptide inhibits __________ reabsorption by the collecting duct, which _________ urine output.

NaCl; increases

112

In the thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop, K+ reenters the cell from the interstitial fluid via the _________. K+ is then secreted into the tubular fluid.

Na+-K+ pump

113

Which of the following is not a method by which natriuretic peptides reduce blood volume and pressure?

Preventing sodium loss in the urine

114

Hypocalcemia stimulates __________.

secretion of parathyroid hormone

115

Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?

Collecting duct

116

The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the __________.

body's water volume is high

117

Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?

Diuretics

118

The countercurrent multiplier recaptures __________ and is based on fluid flowing in the __________ direction in two adjacent tubules.

sodium; opposite

119

The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is to __________.

supply salt and urea to the renal medulla

120

Which of the following induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?

Norepinephrine

121

Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.

glucose

122

The pigment responsible for the color of urine is called __________.

urochrome

123

To meet the definition of polyuria, the minimum daily output of urine is __________.

2.0 L

124

Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of __________.

diabetes mellitus

125

Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the __________.

countercurrent multiplier system

126

A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?

64%

127

Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?

Inulin and creatinine

128

Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min. Why is this?

It is secreted by the renal tubules.

129

Which of the following is not found in the ureter?

Skeletal muscle

130

The __________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.

detrusor

131

The __________ is not a portion of the urethra.

internal urethral sphincter

132

Micturition is another term for __________.

the elimination of urine

133

The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below.

FALSE

134

Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus.

FALSE

135

Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence.

TRUE

136

Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct.

FALSE

137

Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol.

TRUE

138

The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function.

FALSE

139

The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water.

TRUE

140

Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure.

FALSE

141

Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

FALSE

142

Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells.

TRUE

143

Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles.

FALSE

144

The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.

TRUE

145

The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.

TRUE

146

Stimulation of sympathetic fibers of the renal plexus increases renal blood flow.

FALSE

147

Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.

FALSE

148

In a state of fluid balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.

TRUE

149

Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.

TRUE

150

The kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration.

FALSE

151

Hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity.

TRUE

152

Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion.

TRUE

153

Natriuretic peptides promote sodium and potassium excretion.

FALSE

154

Hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration.

TRUE

155

Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus.

FALSE

156

Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.

TRUE

157

A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.

FALSE

158

The three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory.

FALSE

159

The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system.

TRUE

160

Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.

FALSE

161

Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.

TRUE

162

Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

163

What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?

The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

164

In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?

Tissue (interstitial) fluid

165

Most body water intake is from , whereas most body water lost is via .

drinking; urine

166

Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called .

osmoreceptors

167

What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?

It promotes water conservation.

168

Water output is largely controlled by varying .

urine volume

169

Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?

ADH release is inhibited.

170

Which of the following can prolonged exposure to cold weather lead to?

Increased respiratory water loss

171

In response to dehydration, osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of .

ADH

172

A hemorrhage results in which of the following?

A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity

173

Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?

A drop in blood osmolarity

174

What is the principal cation of the ECF?

Na+

175

Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?

Distal convolute tubule

176

What is the function of aldosterone?

It increases Na+reabsorption and K+secretion.

177

Hypernatremia is a plasma concentration abovenormal.

Na+

178

Which of the following is not caused by hypernatremia?

A reduction in plasma volume

179

What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?

Na+

180

Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?

High blood sodium concentration

181

Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of what?

Aldosterone

182

What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?

K+

183

What is the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male?

40 L

184

What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?

K+

185

Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalemia?

The resting membrane potential is more negative.

186

Which of the following occurs with hypokalemia?

Cells are hyperpolarized.

187

28. Hypokalemia can result from all of the following except .

aldosterone hyposecretion

188

What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?

Cl-

189

Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of homeostasis.

Na+

190

Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?

It is a significant component of nucleic acids.

191

How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?

By hormones

192

Which of the following accurately describes the inorganic phosphates(Pi)of the body fluids?

They participate in the activation of some enzymes.

193

Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?

An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF

194

Which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system?

CO2+ H2O H2CO3HCO3-+ H+

195

What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?

7.35 - 7.45

196

What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?

The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein

197

What protein is the most important buffer in blood plasma?

Albumin

198

What protein is the most important buffer in erythrocytes?

Hemoglobin

199

Which of the following characterizes a weak base?

It binds a little H+and has a weak effect on pH.

200

When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they at the same time.

reabsorb sodium

201

Which buffer system accounts for 75% of all chemical buffering in the body fluids?

The protein buffer system

202

The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which

_.

supplies the buffer system with CO2

203

Which of the following describes an antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells?

It exchanges K+for Na+.

204

Proteins can buffer a drop in pH with their side groups and can buffer an increase in pH with their side groups.

- NH2; -COOH

205

Acidosis has what effect on the resting membrane potential of nerve cells?

It causes hyperpolarization.

206

How do the kidneys compensate respiratory acidosis?

By secreting more hydrogen ions

207

Breathing into and out of a paper bag for along period of time will lead to _.

respiratory acidosis

208

An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?

Metabolic alkalosis

209

Chronic vomiting can lead to which of the following?

Metabolic alkalosis

210

Emphysema can lead to which of the following?

Respiratory acidosis

211

A patient suffering from diabetic acidosis would display which of the following symptoms?

Hyperventilation