Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
Assists in the synthesis of vasodilators
Which of the following is caused by the chemical reactions of gases of the respiratory system?
Regulation of pH
The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the _________.
The nose is divided into right and left halves called the __________.
Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?
Vestibular and vocal
What are the most numerous cells in the lungs?
Each alveolus is surrounded by a web of blood capillaries supplied by the _________.
Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?
What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?
Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?
Left main bronchus
The heart indents into the __________ of the left lung.
The heart indents into the __________ of the left lung.
Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except the _________.
Which of the following cartilages is largest?
Which law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases?
In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
Which of the following is the term for the lungs resistance to expansion?
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the __________.
inspiratory reserve volume
How is the vital capacity calculated?
Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except _________.
Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a good samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
There is a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood.
During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
An increase in membrane thickness
The addition of CO2 to the blood generates __________ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
In the air we breathe, which gas is found in the highest concentration?
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to __________ oxygen molecules.
Normally, the systemic arterial blood has a PO2 of ___________ mm Hg, a PCO2 of ___________ mm Hg, and a pH of ___________.
95; 40; 7.4
Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
20% to 25%
Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum?
Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli?
In which condition are the lungs infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?
Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in which condition?
Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid what condition?
Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called _________.
The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in the ___________.
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __________ of the respiratory tract.
The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___________ than in any other form.
Among its other purposes, how is the Valsalva maneuver used?
To aid in defecation and urination
Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.
Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is __________ mL/min.
Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is __________ mL.
The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity.
Respiratory arrest is an irreversible condition.
The pleurae and pleural fluid help prevent the spread of pulmonary infection to the pericardium.
Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons.
The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide.
Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa.
According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2.
Erythrocytes do not carry out aerobic respiration; thus, they do not consume any of the oxygen they are transporting.
Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate.
Output from higher brain centers can bypass both the DRG and VRG and go directly to __________, which controls the accessory muscles of respiration.
spinal integration centers
Which of the following issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?
Which center bears the primary responsibility for generating the respiratory rhythm, but is influenced by several other centers?
The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?
Emotional states are integrated by the __________, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.
If one inspires through their nose, which of the following answers has the correct order of structures the air would move through?
Nares → Vestibule → Nasal Cavity → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Laryngopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary Bronchus → Secondary Bronchus → Tertiary Bronchus → Bronchiole → Terminal Bronchiole → Respiratory Bronchiole → Alveolar Duct → Alveolar Sac → Alveolus
Upon inspiration, what is the name of the air in the conducting zone that is not available for gas exchange?
Anatomical dead space
The anatomical dead space is greatest in which of the following situations?
After swerving to narrowly avoid an accident while driving
Air consists of about 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% water. At sea level, (760 mmHg) what is the PCO2?
0.3 mm Hg
Which law states that the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of the individual gases?
How is alveolar air different than inspired air?
Alveolar air has a higher PH2O than inspired air.
Metabolically active tissues have which of the following sets of conditions that shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right?
↓ PO2, ↑ PCO2, ↑ temperature, ↑ BPG
Conditions around metabolically active tissues do what to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
Shift it right
Hypocapnia will lead to which of the following conditions?
Hypoventilation due to alkalosis
What is the least common but most dangerous form of lung cancer?
After the terminal bronchi air enters the alveoli next.
The serratus anterior is active in eupnea.
The expansion of the lungs during inspiration generates a pressure gradient causing air to flow into the lungs. This is an example of Boyle's law.
In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by __________.
deaminating amino acids
A byproduct of protein catabolism, __________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
Which organ system excretes nitrogenous wastes?
The urinary system
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
The cardiovascular system
Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream.
The __________ is not an organ of the urinary system.
Which of the following is not true about the anatomy of the urinary system?
The kidneys are at equal heights within the pelvic cavity.
The medial concavity of the kidney is called the __________, which admits the renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and ureter.
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
The __________ innervation of the kidneys reduces urine production, while the function of its __________ innervation is unknown.
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as the __________.
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of __________.
one pyramid and the overlying cortex
A renal pyramid voids urine into the __________.
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the __________.
The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney.
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
Interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.
Blood plasma is filtered in the __________.
Which of the following form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
Which of the following is not composed of cuboidal epithelium?
The thin segment of the nephron loop
Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as __________.
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.
proximal convoluted tubule
In a healthy kidney, very little __________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as __________.
the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg.
20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________, to form angiotensin I.
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of one's nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
proximal convoluted tubules
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in __________.
appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone?
Decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts on the __________.
distal convoluted tubule
Natriuretic peptide inhibits __________ reabsorption by the collecting duct, which _________ urine output.
In the thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop, K+ reenters the cell from the interstitial fluid via the _________. K+ is then secreted into the tubular fluid.
Which of the following is not a method by which natriuretic peptides reduce blood volume and pressure?
Preventing sodium loss in the urine
Hypocalcemia stimulates __________.
secretion of parathyroid hormone
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the __________.
body's water volume is high
Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures __________ and is based on fluid flowing in the __________ direction in two adjacent tubules.
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is to __________.
supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of the following induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.
The pigment responsible for the color of urine is called __________.
To meet the definition of polyuria, the minimum daily output of urine is __________.
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of __________.
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the __________.
countercurrent multiplier system
A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?
Inulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min. Why is this?
It is secreted by the renal tubules.
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?
The __________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.
The __________ is not a portion of the urethra.
internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term for __________.
the elimination of urine
The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below.
Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus.
Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence.
Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct.
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol.
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function.
The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water.
Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells.
Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles.
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.
The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
Stimulation of sympathetic fibers of the renal plexus increases renal blood flow.
Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.
In a state of fluid balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.
The kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration.
Hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity.
Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion.
Natriuretic peptides promote sodium and potassium excretion.
Hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration.
Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus.
Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
The three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory.
The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system.
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?
The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
Most body water intake is from , whereas most body water lost is via .
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called .
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
It promotes water conservation.
Water output is largely controlled by varying .
Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?
ADH release is inhibited.
Which of the following can prolonged exposure to cold weather lead to?
Increased respiratory water loss
In response to dehydration, osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of .
A hemorrhage results in which of the following?
A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity
Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?
A drop in blood osmolarity
What is the principal cation of the ECF?
Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?
Distal convolute tubule
What is the function of aldosterone?
It increases Na+reabsorption and K+secretion.
Hypernatremia is a plasma concentration abovenormal.
Which of the following is not caused by hypernatremia?
A reduction in plasma volume
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?
High blood sodium concentration
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of what?
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
What is the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male?
What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?
Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalemia?
The resting membrane potential is more negative.
Which of the following occurs with hypokalemia?
Cells are hyperpolarized.
28. Hypokalemia can result from all of the following except .
What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?
Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of homeostasis.
Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?
It is a significant component of nucleic acids.
How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?
Which of the following accurately describes the inorganic phosphates(Pi)of the body fluids?
They participate in the activation of some enzymes.
Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?
An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF
Which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system?
CO2+ H2O H2CO3HCO3-+ H+
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
7.35 - 7.45
What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?
The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
What protein is the most important buffer in blood plasma?
What protein is the most important buffer in erythrocytes?
Which of the following characterizes a weak base?
It binds a little H+and has a weak effect on pH.
When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they at the same time.
Which buffer system accounts for 75% of all chemical buffering in the body fluids?
The protein buffer system
The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
supplies the buffer system with CO2
Which of the following describes an antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells?
It exchanges K+for Na+.
Proteins can buffer a drop in pH with their side groups and can buffer an increase in pH with their side groups.
- NH2; -COOH
Acidosis has what effect on the resting membrane potential of nerve cells?
It causes hyperpolarization.
How do the kidneys compensate respiratory acidosis?
By secreting more hydrogen ions
Breathing into and out of a paper bag for along period of time will lead to _.
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
Chronic vomiting can lead to which of the following?
Emphysema can lead to which of the following?
A patient suffering from diabetic acidosis would display which of the following symptoms?