chapter 9 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by kaelyndreeder
10,403 views
updated 5 years ago by kaelyndreeder
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

With muscular dystrophy ________.

Muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy

2

which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

Smooth

3

Most muscles contain ___________.

a mixture of fiber types

4

fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of__________.

intense exercise of short duration

5

The strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by __________.

increasing the stimulation p to the maximal stimulus

6

Which of the following would be recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases ?

Motor units with larger, less excitable neurons

7

Which of the following is not a usual result of resistance exercise ?

increase in the number of muscle cells

8

In skeletal muscle contraction, calcium apparently acts to _______.

remove the blocking action of tropomyosin

9

Calcium ions bind to the ______ molecule in skeletal muscle cells.

troponin

10

Myoglobin ______.

stores oxygen in muscle cells

11

An elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the _______.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

12

A sarcomere is _______.

the area between two Z discs

13

Immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the _______ period during which the events o excitation - contraction coupling occur.

Latent

14

Creatine Phosphate functions in the muscle cell by _____.

storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP

15

After nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased , the calcium _______.

level in the cytoplasm drops

16

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to _________.

regulate intracellular calcium concentration

17

The striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced, for the most part, by _______.

the arrangement of myofilaments

18

Which of the following are composed of myosin ?

Thick filaments

19

During muscle contraction, myosin cross brides attach to which active sites ?

actin filaments

20

Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell ?

Endomysium

21

Smooth muscle that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones are ____?

Multiunit muscles

22

Rigor mortis occurs because _______?

no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

23

Which of the following does not act as a stimulus to initiate a muscle contraction ?

A change of Temperature

24

The term aponeurosis refers to

A sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element

25

The oxygen binding protein found in muscle cells is

myoglobin

26

The contractile units of skeletal muscles are _______.

myofibrils

27

The site of calcium regulation in the smooth muscle cell is

calmodulin

28

One function unit of a skeletal muscle is

a sarcomere

29

The functional role of the T tubules is to ______.

enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction

30

The role of calcium ions in muscle contractions is to ______.

bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration

31

The warm-up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peal performance is called _______.

Treppe

32

The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to ________.

enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems

33

During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to _____.

Lactic Acid

34

When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods ?

refractory period

35

In the isotonic contraction, the muscle ______.

changes in length and moves the "load"

36

The muscle cell membrane is called the ________.

Sarcolemma

37

Smooth muscle is significantly different from striated muscle in several ways, Which of the following is true ?

Smooth muscle contracts in a twisting way

38

The mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in that ______.

the site of calcium regulation differs

39

The cells of single- unit visceral muscle ______.

exhibit spontaneous action potentials

40

Which of the following statements is not true concerning developmental aspects of muscle ?

There is no biological basis for the difference in strength between women and men.

41

Which of the following is true about smooth muscle contraction ?

Certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers

42

Smooth muscle is characterized by all of the following except _____.

There are more thick filaments than thin filaments

43

The giant protein titin maintains the organization of the _______ assisting in muscle stretching.

A band

44

Muscle tissue have all of the following properties except

Secretion

45

Which of the following statements is true ?

Striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei

46

An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is _____.

glycolysis

47

Muscle tone is _______.

A state of sustained partial contraction

48

The sliding filament model of contraction involves _______.

actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap

49

After nervous stimulation stops, ACh in the synaptic cleft is prevented from continuing stimulation of contraction by ___________.

Acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh

50

Which of the following is most accurate ?

Muscle tension remains relatively constant during isotonic contraction

51

The most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue is _______.

The ability to transform Chemical energy into mechanical energy

52

Three discrete types of muscle fibers are identified on the basis of their size, speed, and endurance , Which of the following athletic endeavors best represents the use of red fibers ?

A long, relaxing swim

53

Of the following muscle types, which has only one nucleus , no sarcomeres, and rare gap junctions ?

Multiunit smooth muscle

54

Hypothetically, if a muscle were stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped ________.

no muscle tension could be gathered

55

An individual has just ingested a chemical that binds irreversibly to the ACh receptors in the sarcolemma. By itself it does not alter membrane potential , yet prevents normal neurotransmitter binding. ignoring the effects on nay other system, the consequence to skeletal muscle would be ....

no contraction at all by nervous mechanisms, but contraction if stimulated by an external electrode