Homeostasis is the production of formed elements of blood.
Blood viscosity stems mainly from electrolytes and monomers dissolved in plasma.
Lymphoid hemopoiesis occurs mainly in the bone marrow.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide bind to different parts of hemoglobin.
The liver stores excess iron in ferritin.
The most important components in the cytoplasm of RBCs are hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.
A person develops anti-A antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen A, and anti-B antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen B.
Incompatibility of one person's blood with another results from the action of plasma antibodies against the RBCs' antigens.
Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Circulating WBCs spend most of their lives in the bloodstream.
Lymphocytes secrete antibodies, coordinate action of other immune cells, and serve in immune memory.
Monocytes differentiate into large phagocytic cells.
Coagulation starts with a vascular spasm and ends with the formation of a platelet plug.
Clotting deficiency can result from thrombocytopenia or hemophilia.
After a wound is sealed, tissue repair is followed by fibrinolysis.
Which of the following is not a function of blood?
Produces plasma hormones
Which of the following is not contained in the buffy coat?
A normal hematocrit is __________ of the total blood volume
37% to 52%
Which of the following is not normally found in plasma
Which of the following proteins is not normally found in plasma
What is the most abundant protein in plasma?
Which of the following would not decrease the blood colloid osmotic pressure (COP)?
A diet predominantly based on red meat
Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of __________.
Tissues can become edematous (swollen) when which of the following occurs?
There is a dietary protein deficiency.
Where does myeloid hemopoiesis take place in adults?
Red bone marrow
The viscosity of blood is due more to the presence of __________ than to any other factor.
Erythrocytes transport oxygen and __________.
transport some carbon dioxide
Most oxygen is transported in the blood bound to __________.
heme groups in hemoglobin
What would happen if all of the hemoglobin contained within the RBCs became free in the plasma?
It would significantly increase blood osmolarity.
An increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys would lead to all of the following except __________.
Where do most RBCs die?
Spleen and liver
Which of the following would not lead to polycythemia?
Which of the following is most likely to cause anemia?
Which of the following is not true of a patient with anemia?
Their blood viscosity is increased.
What is the final product of the breakdown of the organic nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin?
Correction of hypoxemia is regulated by __________.
a negative feedback loop
A deficiency of __________ can cause pernicious anemia.
Which of the following is not true regarding sickle-cell disease?
It is a cause of malaria.
The ABO blood group is determined by __________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs.
A person with type A blood can safely donate RBCs to someone of type __________ and can receive RBCs from someone of type __________.
A person with type AB blood has __________ RBC antigen(s).
A and B
Why are pregnant Rh- women given an injection of Rh immune globulin?
Antibodies in the injection bind fetal RBC antigens so they cannot stimulate her immune system to produce anti-D antibodies
The universal donor of RBCs, but not necessarily plasma, is blood type __________.
An individual has type B, Rh-positive blood. The individual has __________ antigen(s) and can produce anti-__________ antibodies.
B and D; A
The main reason why an individual with type AB, Rh-negative blood cannot donate blood to an individual with type A, Rh-positive blood is because __________.
anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor
A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood. The mother is most likely type __________ and both children are most likely __________.
A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive
What are the least abundant of the formed elements?
What are the most abundant agranulocytes?
The number of __________ typically increases in response to bacterial infections.
Which cells aid in the body's defense processes by secreting histamine and heparin?
Leukopoiesis begins with the differentiation of __________.
pluripotent stem cells
Some lymphocytes can survive as long as __________.
A patient is diagnosed with leukocytosis if they have more than __________ WBCs/μL.
Which of the following has not been implicated in causing leukopenia?
What is the largest leukocyte that contains small cytoplasmic granules and typically a kidney- or horseshoe-shaped nucleus?
Which of the following are not secreted by platelets?
The cessation of bleeding is specifically called __________.
What is the function of thromboplastin in hemostasis?
It initiates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
When a clot is no longer needed, fibrin is dissolved by __________.
Which of these does not prevent the spontaneous formation of a clot?
The presence of tissue thromboplastin
Platelets release __________, a chemical vasoconstrictor that contributes to the vascular spasm.
The structural framework of a blood clot is formed by __________.
a fibrin polymer
Most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. Moreover, a piece of the __________ (clot) may break loose and begin to travel in the bloodstream as a(n) __________.
During coagulation, which of the following is found in the extrinsic mechanism only?
Where are most clotting factors synthesized in the body?
A patient is suffering from ketoacidosis caused by an unregulated high protein diet. Which function of the blood has been compromised?
Stabilizing the body's pH
Where in the body are hemopoietic stem cells found?
Red bone marrow
Which of the following might be injected into a patient who is prone to forming blood clots and therefore at risk of a heart attack or stroke?
Blood clots in the limbs put a patient most at risk for __________.
Blood groups are made up of any surface antigen on formed elements, not just ABO and Rh, and include over 500 known antigens.
Blood groups are used for legal purposes and in anthropology.
The pulmonary circuit is supplied by both the right and the left sides of the heart.
The systemic circuit contains oxygen-rich blood only.
The fibrous skeleton of the heart serves as electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles.
Blood in the heart chambers provides most of the myocardium's oxygen and nutrient needs.
Desmosomes form channels that allow each cardiomyocyte to electrically stimulate its neighbors.
Parasympathetic stimulation reduces heart rate.
The cardiac plexus and cardiac nerves dominate the innervation of the heart and contains both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.
Cardiac muscle can only use glucose as a source of organic fuel.
If the SA node is damaged, nodal rhythm is sufficient to sustain life.
Repolarization of a ventricular cardiomyocyte takes longer than repolarization of a typical neuron.
Atrial hypertrophy would probably cause an enlarged P wave on an electrocardiogram.
Papillary muscles prevent the AV valves from prolapsing (bulging) excessively into the atria when the ventricles contract.
The ventricles are almost empty at the end of ventricular diastole.
Ventricular pressure increases the fastest during ventricular filling.
Hypercapnia and acidosis have positive chronotropic effects.
Endurance athletes commonly have a resting heart rate as low as 40 bpm, and a stroke volume as low as 50 mL/beat.
Exercise causes the ventricles to hypertrophy.
Which of the following carry oxygen-poor blood?
Venae cavae and pulmonary arteries
Which of the following belong to the pulmonary circuit?
Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
Which of the following is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart?
The heart is located in the space called the __________.
The apex of the heart is found __________ of the midline of the body.
to the left
Pericardial fluid is found between the __________ and the __________.
parietal; visceral membranes
The __________ are the superior chambers of the heart and the _________ are the inferior chambers of the heart.
The shallow depression seen on the external surface of the heart between the left and right ventricles is called the __________.
The area where the major vessels lead to and from the heart's chambers is called the __________ of the heart. The pointy, inferior portion is called the ___________.
The __________ performs the work of the heart.
The right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid) regulates the opening between the _________ and the _________.
right atrium; right ventricle
Oxygen-poor blood passes through the _________.
right AV (tricuspid) and pulmonary valves
Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by _________.
The __________ valve regulates the flow of blood between the right ventricle and the vessels leading to the lungs.
The __________ carry blood toward the lungs.
pulmonary trunk and arteries
Which of the following blood vessels receives blood directly from the right ventricle?
The chordae tendinae of the AV valves are anchored to the __________ of the ventricles.
After entering the right atrium, the furthest a red blood cell can travel is the _________.
superior vena cava
Which of the following directly stems from the ascending aorta before it branches into the circumflex branch and anterior interventricular branch?
left coronary artery
Obstruction of the ___________ will cause a more severe myocardial infarction (MI) than the obstruction of any of the others.
left coronary artery
Which of the following is a feature shared by cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?
Muscle fiber striations
The __________ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat.
sinoatrial (SA) node
Which of the following is not part of the cardiac conduction system?
Which of the following is not a feature of cardiac muscle?
They have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers.
Which is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiomyocyte in the left ventricle (LV)?
Sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) node → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → Subendothelial conducting network → cardiomyocyte in LV
The pacemaker potential is a result of _________.
The plateau in the action potential of cardiac muscle results from the action of __________.
slow Ca2+ channels
When sodium channels are fully open, the membrane of the ventricular cardiomyocyte _________.
Cells of the sinoatrial node __________ during the pacemaker potential.
Any abnormal cardiac rhythm is called a(n) __________.
If the sinoatrial (SA) node is damaged, the heart will likely beat at __________ bpm.
40 to 50
The __________ provides most of the Ca2+ needed for myocardial contraction
Atrial systole begins __________.
immediately after the P wave
Atrial depolarization causes the _________.
The long plateau in the action potential observed in cardiomyocytes is probably related with __________ staying longer in the cytosol.
The long absolute refractory period of cardiomyocytes _________.
An extended period of time between the P wave and the QRS complex may indicate which of the following?
The signal is taking too long to get to the AV node.
In a normal ECG, the deflection that is generated by ventricular repolarization is called the __________.
When the left ventricle contracts, the __________ valve closes and the __________ valve is pushed open.
Mitral valve prolapse causes blood to leak back into the __________ when the ventricles contract.
Isovolumetric contraction occurs during the __________ of the electrocardiogram.
During isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricles __________.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) generates a murmur associated with the __________ heart sound that occurs when the __________.
lubb (S1); ventricles contract
When the aortic semilunar valve closes and blood bounces off of it, it produces the __________ heart sound that is ultimately related to when the __________.
dupp (S2); ventricles relax
Which is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle?
Ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric relaxation
Most of the ventricle filling occurs __________.
during atrial diastole
When the ventricles relax, the __________ valve prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) of the right ventricle __________.
can cause systemic edema
Assume that the left ventricle of a child's heart has an EDV=90mL, and ESV=60mL, and a cardiac output of 2,400 mL/min. His SV is __________ mL/beat and his HR is __________ bpm.
Stroke volume is increased by __________.
increased venous return
The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute is called the __________.
Cardioinhibitory centers in the __________ receive input from __________.
medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the aortic arch
The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that stroke volume is proportional to __________.
the end-diastolic volume
Mercury is used to measure blood pressure because it is __________ compared to other liquids.
The ventricles are the thicker more powerful chambers of the heart. They pump blood to the lungs and body.
Electrical signals pass between cardiomyocytes through the _____.
Blood pressure is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) but could be measured with any liquid, such as water (mm H20).
The amount of blood pumped through the pulmonary circuit is less than the amount pumped through the systemic circuit.