Life Span Development A topical Approach

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Life Span Development
Chapters 1-3
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1

_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span.

a) Biological

b) Lifespan

c) Psychological

d) Research

b) Lifespan

2

In its study of growth, change, and stability, lifespan development takes a(n) ______ approach.

a) hypothetical

b) scientific

c) biological

d) environmental

b) scientific

3

A professor wants to examine the effectiveness of a new teaching approach. Her 9:00 a.m. class will be exposed to the new method of viewing teaching tapes, while her 10:00 a.m. class will be exposed to traditional lectures. Students will be able to choose which tapes they want to view. What method is the professor using to conduct her experiment?

a) hypothetical

b) biological

c) environmental

d) scientific

d) scientific

4

Lifespan development focuses on

a) nonhuman species.

b) test tube babies.

c) biological and environmental development.

d) human development

d) human development

5

A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)

a)race

b)cohort

c) ethnic group.

d) normative group.

b)cohort

6

Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______ influences.

a) age-graded

b) history-graded

c) biological

d) environmental

a) age-graded

7

Biological and environmental factors that are associated with a certain historical event, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, can be considered

a) age-graded influences.

b) history-graded influences.

c) sociocultural-graded influences.

d) non-normative life events

b) history-graded influences.

8

An example of a biological universal event that occurs at relatively the same time throughout all societies is

a) young adulthood

b) puberty

c) adulthood

d) death

b) puberty

9
  1. Alice’s symptoms of menopause include hot flashes and cessation of her monthly menstrual cycle. Alice’s doctor tells her she is experiencing a(n)

a) non-normative life event.

b) age-graded influence.

c) history-graded influence.

d) sociocultural-graded influence.

b) age-graded influence.

10

A(n)_____________ period is a specific time during which a particular event has the greatest consequences.

a) sensitive
b) conditioning
c) critical
d) environmental

c) critical

11

A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)

a) race.
b) cohort.
c) ethnic group.
d) normative group.

b) cohort.

12

Researchers who use intelligence testing as part of their research project with elementary age students are likely to be researching _________ development.

a) personality
b) cognitive
c) social
d) physical

b) cognitive

13

Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______ influences.

a) age-graded
b) history-graded
c) biological
d) environmental

a) age-graded

14

When social and cultural factors affect an individual at a particular time and include such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership, these factors are called

a) age-graded influences.

b) non-normative life events.

c) history-graded influences.

d) sociocultural-graded influences.

d) sociocultural-graded influences.

15

________ development involves the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span.

a) Cognitive
b) Physical
c) Personality
d) Social

c) Personality

16

People who lived in New York City during the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center experienced shared challenges due to the fact that they all experienced the attack. These challenges are an example of ________ effects.

a) biological

b) environmental

c) cohort

d) Millennial Generation

c) cohort

17

_________ development involves the way in which individuals’ interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.

a) Cognitive
b) Physical
c) Personality
d) Social

c) Personality

18

An example of a biological universal event that occurs at relatively the same time throughout all societies is

a) young adulthood.
b) puberty.
c) adulthood.
d) death.

b) puberty.

19

Alice’s symptoms of menopause include hot flashes and cessation of her monthly menstrual cycle. Alice’s doctor tells her she is experiencing a(n)

a) non-normative life event.
b) age-graded influence.
c) history-graded influence.
d) sociocultural-graded influence.

b) age-graded influence.

20

A(n)_____________ period is a specific time during which a particular event has the greatest consequences.

a) sensitive
b) conditioning
c) critical
d) environmental

c) critical

21

In a ______, organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences.

a) sensitive period
b) continuous change
c) critical period
d) discontinuous change

a) sensitive period

22

“Nature” refers to

a) traits, abilities and capacities inherited from parents.
b) biological forces within the environment that affect change.
c) how people’s growth and change is affected at the cellular level.
d) socioeconomic surroundings that affect people’s growth and change.

a) traits, abilities and capacities inherited from parents.

23

Environmental influences that shape behavior are referred to as

a) nurture.
b) maturation.
c) nature.
d) social evolution.

a) nurture.

24

Explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest are called _________________, and provide a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles.

a) concepts
b) hypotheses
c) theories
d) perspectives

c) theories

25

The psychodynamic perspective is closely associated with the original work of

a) Freud.
b) Erikson.
c) Skinner.
d) Piaget.

a) Freud.

26

Sigmund Freud is responsible for revolutionary ideas and the __________ theory.

a) behavioral
b) psychoanalytic
c) phallic
d) reality

b) psychoanalytic

27

Who was one of the first American psychologists to advocate a behavioral approach to development?

a) Skinner
b) Watson
c) Piaget
d) Erikson

b) Watson

28

Judy was bitten by a small brown and white dog when she was a little girl, and now every time she sees a small dog approaching her, she is fearful. Watson would say that Judy’s reaction is a result of _________ conditioning.

a) behavioral
b) classical
c) reinforcement
d) psychosocial

b) classical

29

Operant conditioning was formulated and championed by

a) Freud.
b) Skinner.
c) Bandura.
d) Rogers.

b) Skinner

30

Which developmental psychologist developed an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model?

a) Skinner
b) Freud
c) Bandura
d) Watson

c) Bandura

31

Who is considered the predominant theorist in cognitive development?
a) Piaget
b) Skinner
c) Bandura
d) Freud

a) Piaget

32

Piaget’s two basic principles of growth in children’s understanding of the world are

a) reward and punishment.
b) schemas and assessment.
c) assimilation and accommodation.
d) cognitive and behavior.

c) assimilation and accommodation.

33

What did Piaget call the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?

a) cognition
b) accommodation
c) schemes
d) assimilation

d) assimilation

34

What has become an important alternative to Piagetian approaches?

a) behavioral modification
b) classical conditioning
c) information processing
d) social-cognitive learning

c) information processing

35

List the four important issues of lifespan development.

Answer: 1) Continuity versus discontinuity; 2) the importance of critical and sensitive periods; 3) whether to focus on certain periods or on the entire life span; and 4) the nature versus nurture controversy

36

List the four important issues of lifespan development.

Answer: 1) Continuity versus discontinuity; 2) the importance of critical and sensitive periods; 3) whether to focus on certain periods or on the entire life span; and 4) the nature versus nurture controversy.

37

Lifespan is usually divided into which specific broad-age ranges?

Answer: Prenatal Period (conception to birth); Infancy and Toddlerhood (birth to age 3); Preschool Period (ages 3–6) Middle Childhood (ages 6–12); Adolescence (ages 12–20); Young Adulthood (ages 20–40); Middle Adulthood (ages 40–60); and Late Adulthood (age 60 to death).

38

Who was a major proponent of the humanistic perspective and suggested that all people need positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved and respected?

a) Bandura
b) Rogers
c) Maslow
d) Freud

b) Rogers

39

Which theorist(s) championed the idea of self-actualization?

a) Freud and Erikson
b) Skinner and Piaget
c) Rogers and Maslow
d) Bandura

c) Rogers and Maslow

40

Which perspective contains the two major theories of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological approach and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory?

a) cognitive
b) humanistic
c) behavioral
d) contextual

d) contextual

41

Who wrote the groundbreaking work titled On the Origin of Species and is responsible for the beginning of the evolutionary perspective?

a) Bronfenbrenner
b) Vygotsky
c) Darwin
d) Lorenz

c) Darwin

42

The evolutionary perspective draws from the field of ethology, which examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior. Who is/was a primary proponent of ethology?

a) Darwin
b) Vygotsky
c) Bronfenbrenner
d) Lorenz

d) Lorenz

43

According to Freud, which part of everyone’s personality operates according to the “pleasure principle”?

a) unconscious
b) ego
c) superego
d) id

d) id

44

Freud believed that the _____ is the part of the personality that is rational and reasonable.

a) id
b) superego
c) conscious
d) ego

d) ego

45

The ________ is Freud’s representation of incorporating the distinction between right and wrong.

a) ego
b) id
c) superego
d) unconscious

c) superego

46

Adults demonstrating excessive activities such as eating, talking, or chewing gum may be experiencing a(n) __________ fixation.

a) anal
b) oral
c) phallic
d) psychosexual

b) oral

47

The "feminine Oedipus attitude" was posited by Freud as a theoretical counterpart to the Oedipus complex
A. Penis envy

B. Electra complex

C. Oedipus complex

B. Electra complex

48

A group of largely unconscious (dynamically repressed) ideas and feelings which center around the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of the same sex.
A. Odepius complex

B. Electra complex

C. Fixation

A. Odepius complex

49

A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response is called

a) classical conditioning.
b) behavioral perspective.
c) operant conditioning.
d) psychodynamic approach.

a) classical conditioning.

50

Operant conditioning was formulated and championed by

a) Freud.
b) Skinner.
c) Bandura.
d) Rogers.

b) Skinner

51

List and briefly explain three types of learning derived from the behavioral perspective.

Answer: 1) Classical conditioning occurs when an organism learns to respond to a neutral stimulus that normally does not evoke that type of response; 2) operant conditioning is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences; 3) social-cognitive learning theory is an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.

52

What is the learning approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, a process called modeling?

a) classical conditioning
b) behavior modification
c) social-cognitive learning
d) operant conditioning

c) social-cognitive learning

53

Ralph watches the other kindergarten students receive stickers and other rewards from the teacher for sitting at their desks and completing their work. Soon, Ralph begins to behave like the other kindergarten students. This is what type of learning?

a) modeling
b) reinforcement
c) extinction
d) imitation

a) modeling

54

According to Piaget, human thought is arranged in organized mental patterns, called __________, that represent behaviors and actions.

a) stages
b) steps
c) schemes
d) sequences

c) schemes

55

In _________ research, the researcher could tell if an association or relationship between two factors exists.

a) scientific
b) correlational
c) hypothetical
d) experimental

b) correlational

56

. A correlation __________ is a statistic that describes the relationship between two variables, and is always between -1.00 and +1.00.

a) gradient
b) coefficient
c) variance
d) deviation

b) coefficient

57

True or False

A correlational study can conclude that the viewing of television aggression causes more aggressive behavior in children.

False

58

In an experiment, the ____________ is exposed to the treatment variable being studied; the ____________ is not.

a) control group; experimental group
b) treatment group; experimental group
c) control group; treatment group
d) treatment group; control group

d) treatment group; control group

59

________ research is designed to discover causal relationships between various factors.

a) Correlational
b) Hypothetical
c) Experimental
d) Scientific

c) Experimental

60

A(n) _______ is a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested.

a) hypothesis
b) theory
c) operational definition
d) scientific method

a) hypothesis

61

Alan has decided to conduct a naturalistic observation of children and friendships. Which location would produce the most accurate results?

a) a school principal’s office
b) a laboratory setting designed like a classroom
c) a hospital emergency room
d) a playground

d) a playground

62

All genes are composed of specific sequences of _______ molecules.

a) DNA
b) zygote
c) ovum
d) sperm

a) DNA

63

Humans have about ______ genes.

a) 50,000
b) 25,000
c) 100,000
d) 10,000

b) 25,000

64

Genes are arranged in specific locations and in a specific order along ____ different chromosomes.

a) 52
b) 21
c) 46
d) 54

c) 46

65

Rod-shaped portions of DNA called chromosomes are organized in ____ pairs.

a) 52
b) 23
c) 46
d) 54

b) 23

66

When gametes are formed in the human body, this is called

a) division.
b) meiosis.
c) mitosis.
d) genetic instruction.

b) meiosis.

67

The process of _______ accounts for the replication of most types of cells, so nearly all the cells of the body will contain the same 46 chromosomes as the zygote.

a) meiosis
b) cell division
c) mitosis
d) reproduction

c) mitosis

68

The process of _______ accounts for the replication of most types of cells, so nearly all the cells of the body will contain the same 46 chromosomes as the zygote.

a) meiosis
b) cell division
c) Fertilization
d) reproduction

c) Fertilization

69

If the child has a XX pairing on the 23rd chromosome, the child will be

a) male.
b) monozygotic.
c) dizygotic.
d) female.

d) female.

70

Jason and Justin are twins and are genetically identical. They are ________ twins.

a) gamete
b) dizygotic
c) monozygotic
d) zygote

c) monozygotic

71

Evan and Evelyn are twins but are not genetically identical. They are ________ twins.

a) gamete
b) dizygotic
c) monozygotic
d) zygote

b) dizygotic

72

The one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present is called

a) recessive.
b) genotype.
c) dominant.
d) phenotype.

c) dominant.

73

A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called

a) dominant.
b) a genotype.
c) a phenotype.
d) recessive.

d) recessive.

74

The underlying combination of genetic material that is present but not outwardly visible in an organism is called

a) a genotype.
b) a phenotype.
c) dominant.
d) polygenic.

a) a genotype.

75

An observable trait is labeled

a) polygenic.
b) recessive.
c) a genotype.
d) a phenotype.

d) a phenotype.

76

Eric has blue eyes. Since the gene for blue eyes is recessive, Eric must be ______ for that trait.

b) homozygous

77

When a child receives different forms of a certain gene from his/her parents, he or she is said to be

a) dominant.
b) phenotypical.
c) homozygous.
d) heterozygous.

c) heterozygous

78

When a child receives different forms of a certain gene from his/her parents, he or she is said to be

a) dominant.
b) phenotypical.
c) homozygous.
d) heterozygous.

d) heterozygous.

79

What is the name of the inherited disorder in which a child is unable to make use of an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk and other foods, and which has the potential to cause brain damage and mental retardation?

a) heterozygous
b) phenylketonuria (PKU)
c) homozygous
d) chromosome deficiency

b) phenylketonuria (PKU)

80

True or False

The blood disorder hemophilia is an example of a disease that is produced by X-linked genes.

True

81

Briefly explain the inherited disorder called sickle-cell anemia.

Sickle-cell anemia is a blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of red blood cells in those who have it. Symptoms include poor appetite, stunted growth, swollen stomach, and yellowish eyes. People afflicted with the disease rarely live beyond childhood. For less severe cases, medical advances have produced significant increases in life expectancy.

82

Which procedure can identify a variety of genetic defects with nearly 100% accuracy?

a) amniocentesis
b) chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
c) sonoembryology
d) embryoscopy

a) amniocentesis

83

What is used to find genetic defects and involves taking samples of hair-like material that surrounds the unborn baby?

a) karyotype
b) amniocentesis
c) ultrasound sonography
d) chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

d) chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

84

What is the term applied to studying the effects of heredity on behavior?

a) gene sequence
b) mapping
c) behavioral genetics
d) human genome

c) behavioral genetics

85

The hormone __________ is produced in ________, which some scientists speculate may lead to differences in male and female brain structure, and later variations in gender-related behavior(s).

a) oxytocin; males
b) progestin; females
c) androgen; males
d) progesterone; females

c) androgen; males

86

During the germinal stage, the fertilized egg is now called a(n) ___________, and travels toward the uterus where it becomes implanted in the uterus’s wall.

a) ovum
b) sperm
c) zygote
d) blastocyst

c) zygote

87

What is the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth?

a) fertilization stage
b) fetus stage
c) embryonic stage
d) fetal stage

d) fetal stage

88

Each human parent contributes ______________ to the developing zygote.

a) 23 genes
b) one of each pair of 23 chromosomes
c) 46 genes
d) 23 X chromosomes and 23 Y chromosomes

b) one of each pair of 23 chromosomes

89

The joining of sperm and ovum to create the single-celled zygote from which life begins is referred to as __________.

a) pregnancy
b) ejaculation
c) fertilization
d) ovulation

c) fertilization

90

What is the name of the period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems?

a) embryonic stage
b) fetal stage
c) fetus stage
d) fertilization stage

a) embryonic stage

91

In the embryonic stage, every part of the body is formed from one of ____ layers.

a) 5
b) 3
c) 8
d) 10

c) 8

92

What is the term for a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth?

a) embryo
b) baby
c) fetus
d) zygote

c) fetus

93

What sexually transmitted disease can be transmitted directly to the fetus, who will be born suffering from the disease?

a) chicken pox
b) rubella
c) sickle cell
d) syphilis

d) syphilis

94

Increasing evidence suggests that small amounts of alcohol and nicotine

a) can disrupt the development of the fetus.
b) pose no danger to the fetus.
c) can have some benefits for the fetus.
d) are acceptable for pregnant mothers with few risk factors.

a) can disrupt the development of the fetus.

95

A conduit between the mother and fetus, this organ provides nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord.

a) amniotic sac
b) ectoderm
c) placenta
d) endoderm

c) placenta

96

What disease may be passed on to the fetus through the blood that reaches the placenta?

a) mumps
b) syphilis
c) AIDS
d) gonorrhea

c) AIDS

97

During which stage of childbirth does the umbilical cord (which is still attached to the neonate) and the placenta expel from the mother’s body?

a) transitional
b) second
c) final
d) third

d) third

98

A(n) ______________ occurs when pregnancy ends before the developing child is able to survive outside the mother’s womb.

a) stillbirth
b) ectopic pregnancy
c) miscarriage
d) premature birth

c) miscarriage

99

Infertility is the inability to conceive after ________ months of trying to become pregnant.

a) 15 to 20
b) 18 to 24
c) 6 to 12
d) 12 to 18

d) 12 to 18

100

When does the greatest increase in height and weight occur?

a) in the womb during gestation
b) during the first year of life
c) during toddlerhood
d) during adolescence

b) during the first year of life

101

By their first birthday, the average infant’s birthweight has

a) quadrupled.
b) doubled.
c) tripled.
d) increased only slightly in comparison to later months.

c) tripled.

102

Waking, eating, sleeping, and elimination are important parts of a baby’s

a) patterns.
b) cycles.
c) training.
d) rhythms.

d) rhythms.

103

What is the term for repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior?

a) training
b) cycles
c) rhythms
d) patterns

c) rhythms

104

What is the term for the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming?

a) rapid eye movement (REM)
b) sleep-wake transition
c) active sleep
d) active-quiet transition

a) rapid eye movement (REM)

105

What term refers to an infant’s various levels of wakeful behaviors, such as alertness, fussing, crying, and different levels of sleep?

a) sensitive period
b) state
c) rhythm
d) alternation

b) state

106

Which of the following hormones play important roles in puberty?

a) growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon
b) dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin
c) cortisol, adrenaline, and norepinephrine
d) androgen, leptin, and estrogen

d) androgen, leptin, and estrogen

107

Which of the following terms describes the period in which the sexual organs mature?

a) maturation
b) puberty
c) latency
d) growth spurt

b) puberty

108

. The _____ gland signals the body to increase production of growth hormones that interact with the sex hormones to cause the growth spurt and puberty.

a) thalamus
b) thyroid
c) pituitary
d) pineal

c) pituitary

109

According to research, all of the following are factors with regard to the age of menarche in girls EXCEPT

a) the economic status of the country in which the girl lives and the affluence of the group the girl is part of.
b) environmental stress and high levels of family conflict.
c) proportion of fat to muscle in the girl’s body.
d) the age at which her mother’s menarche began.

d) the age at which her mother’s menarche began.

110

The term “senescence” is another name for

a) primary aging.
b) secondary aging.
c) outward aging.
d) inward aging.

a) primary aging.

111

Although young adults are generally healthy, by their early 20s, ______________, a natural physical decline brought about by increasing age, has already begun.

a) debilitation
b) senescence
c) maturation
d) senility

b) senescence

112

Aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that, due to genetic programming, occur as people get older is called

a) inward aging.
b) secondary aging.
c) outward aging.
d) primary aging.

d) primary aging.

113

Changes in physical functioning that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable, are called

a) primary aging.
b) secondary aging.
c) outward aging.
d) inward aging.

b) secondary aging

114

Communication with other neurons is done by means of _________ that travel across the small gaps called __________.

a) myelin; synapses
b) dendrites; myelin
c) neurotransmitters; synapses
d) axons; synapses

c) neurotransmitters; synapses

115

Synaptic pruning means unused __________ are being removed from the brain.

a) glial cells
b) myelin sheaths
c) neurotransmitters
d) neurons

d) neurons

116

_________ is the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience.

a) Synaptic pruning
b) The principle of the independence of systems
c) Myelination
d) Plasticity

d) Plasticity

117

What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other?

a) cross-referencing
b) lateralization
c) hemispheric transference
d) transmission

b) lateralization

118

By the end of the preschool years, most children show __________, which is a clear preference for using one hand over the other.

a) partiality
b) dexterity
c) handedness
d) directionality

c) handedness

119

Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior(s)?

a) ADD/ADHD
b) developing myelination of nerve cells, which makes the transmission of neural messages more efficient
c) the adolescent prefrontal cortex is biologically immature
d) alterations of dopamine sensitivity

c) the adolescent prefrontal cortex is biologically immature

120

What is the term for unlearned, unorganized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli?

a) autostimulation
b) reflexes
c) rhythms
d) cycles

b) reflexes

121

Many of the reflexes that infants are born with have ________ value.

a) limited
b) no
c) survival
d) fleeting

c) survival

122

________ are unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.

a) Motor skills
b) Reflexes
c) Rhythms
d) Characteristics

b) Reflexes

123

What is the term for the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age?

a) standard
b) median
c) typical
d) norms

d) norms

124

What is the term for the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain?

a) perception
b) visualization
c) sensation
d) distinction

a) perception

125

The researcher Robert Fantz discovered that

a) newborn infants prefer to look at simple stimuli rather than complex stimuli.
b) when given a choice of visual stimuli, newborn infants don’t show a preference.
c) newborn infants prefer to look at complex stimuli rather than simple stimuli.
d) newborn infants are too young to concentrate on visual stimuli; therefore, it’s impossible to measure their preference.

c) newborn infants prefer to look at complex stimuli rather than simple stimuli.

126

True or False

A newborn infant’s sense of smell is so well-developed that they can distinguish their mother on the basis of smell alone.

True

127

The “visual cliff” study by Gibson & Walk indicates that most infants in the age range of _________ months cannot be coaxed to cross the “cliff.”

a) 6 to 14
b) 5 to 12
c) 12 to 14
d) 8 to 14

a) 6 to 14

128

The developmental researchers who conducted the classic study regarding the “visual cliff” was/were _________.

a) Pavlov & Watson
b) Skinner & Thorndike
c) Bandura & Rotter
d) Gibson & Walk

d) Gibson & Walk

129

Briefly discuss the classic study by developmental psychologists Gibson & Walk and the “visual cliff.”

Answer: In this 1960 study, infants were placed on a sheet of heavy glass. A checkered pattern appeared under one half of the glass sheet, making it appear that the infant was on a stable floor. In the middle of the glass sheet, the pattern dropped down several feet forming a “visual cliff.” The researchers asked whether infants would willingly crawl across the cliff when called by their mothers. The results were clear, as most of the 6 to 14-month-old infants could not be coaxed over the cliff. This indicated that the ability to perceive depth had been developed by most of the infants.

130

Which of the following is NOT a change in vision occurring during middle adulthood?

a) decline in depth perception
b) decline in distance perception
c) presbyopia lessens
d) change in ability to see in three dimensions

c) presbyopia lessens

131

Tomasina finds herself holding books and newspapers further from her eyes in order to read and bring material into focus. Her eye exam reveals she has

a) farsightedness.
b) visual acuity problems.
c) presbycusis.
d) mysbyopia.

c) presbycusis.

132

A decrease in one’s ability to hear high-pitched, high frequency sounds is known as

a) presbycusis.
b) hearing detention.
c) hearing manifestation.
d) myopia.

a) presbycusis.

133

Which condition affecting vision involves a clouding of the lens inside the eye, which interferes with the passage of light to the retina?

a) presbycusis
b) presbyopia
c) macular degeneration
d) cataracts

d) cataracts

134

Emanuel is told the pressure in his eyes has increased and that fluid in his eyes cannot drain properly. Emanuel has

a) glaucoma.
b) myopia.
c) presbyopia.
d) presbycusis

a) glaucoma.

135

According to the peripheral slowing hypothesis, the increased reaction time of older people is attributable to changes in the ______________.

a) circulatory system, including the heart
b) entire nervous system, including the brain
c) rate of blood flow in the brain
d) nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord

d) nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord