Psychology Chapter 13

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1

The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

cognitive model

2

Attempts to understand the biological basis of depression has linked it to imbalances in​

-norepinephrine and serotonin

3

Fannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people’s demands, her therapist may suggest that Fannie’s attempts could lead to​

-distorted self-image

4

All but which of the following have been implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder?​

-low levels of dopamine production

5

A psychologist is seeing a client who always talks fast, seems to have incredible energy, makes grandiose plans that would be impossible to carry out, and seems to “bounce off the walls.” If this person never shows signs of depression, he is likely to be suffering from ____.

mania

6

Reduction of anxiety that occurs when feared objects are avoided is the basis of which explanation of phobic avoidance?

operant conditioning

7

In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

the role of classical conditioning in the development of phobias

8

Jurgen has been diagnosed as having a phobia. This means that Jurgen experiences

an irrational or excessive fear of something

9

Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and singer Elton John. Since she really is not their child, Gina’s belief would be considered a(n)​

delusion

10

The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?​

-Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his health

11

A stereotypical man with antisocial personality disorder is likely to have been raised in a home characterized by​

-neglect, abuse, and lack of warmth

12

Tako occasionally finds himself in a state of sheer terror. The sensation lasts for several minutes, and he often believes he is "going crazy." His symptoms most closely describe​

-panic disorder

13

The type of psychological disorder that attracted Sigmund Freud to the study of psychological factors in abnormal behavior would now be called

-functional neurological symptom disorder

14

Delusions of ______ describe the most common theme among schizophrenia patients.

persecution

15

Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?​

faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality

16

In brain imaging studies, people with antisocial personality disorder showed relatively little activity in the amygdala, which normally ____.

pariticipates in recognition of fear and other negative emotions in others

17

What is the approximate prevalence of bipolar disorder in the adult U.S. population?

1%

18

Regarding dissociative disorders, which of the following statements is false ?​

-compared to other psychological disorders, dissociative disorders are relatively common

19

​Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate all of the following except

- psychotic behavior

20

Approximately how many people are hospitalized for schizophrenia in a given year?

More than 100,000

21

The fact that antisocial behavioral patterns appear at such an early age and are so difficult to change lends support to the notion that an antisocial personality may be caused by ____.​

Biological factors

22

Regarding major depressive disorder, ____.

-women are more likely than men to be diagnosed

23

​Somatic symptom disorder is characterized by physical symptoms ____.

-that do not have underlying medical cause

24

Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a ____ factor involved in anxiety disorders.

-genetic

25

Humanistic theorists contend that abnormal behavior

-develops from encountering obstacles on the road to personal growth

26

Mira has hallucinations and delusions. Which of the following is a hallucination, as opposed to a delusion?​

-Mira hears critical voices commenting on her every action

27

​As described in the text, psychological models of abnormal behavior based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of

-phobias

28

Regarding major depressive disorder,​

-women are more likely than men to be affected

29

Which of the following is not one of the criteria used by psychologists to determine whether a behavior is abnormal?

-morality

30

​Different personalities in dissociative identity disorder may demonstrate all of the following except

- different eye colors

31

Charmaine Coltraine is preoccupied with fears that she has a terrible health problem. Coltraine’s fears are characteristic of

-somatic symptom disorder

32

In schizophrenia, behavioral excesses are to ____ as behavioral deficits are to ____.

-positive symptoms; negative symptoms

33

Which anxiety disorder has the highest lifetime prevalence in the population?

-specific phobia

34

Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?

-faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality

35

​Steven has bipolar disorder. All of the following may occur during his manic episodes except

- waxy flexibility

36

Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a ____ factor involved in anxiety disorders.

genetic

37

As described in the text, behavioral models of abnormality assume that abnormal behavior

-is learned in much the same way that normal behavior is learned

38

All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?

-the majority of people with this disorder engage in criminal activities

39

Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development.​

-classical conditioning

40

How do delusions differ from hallucinations?​

-Delusions involve false beliefs while hallucinations involve false perceptions

41

Dissociative amnesia is ____.​

-a loss of memory with no identifiable physical cause

42

Hallucinations are

-perceptions that occur without appropriate external stimuli

43

Exaggerated energy, enthusiasm, and elation are characteristic of ____.

mania

44

​The most common form of hallucinations, a symptom of schizophrenia, is ____.

auditory

45

The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

cognitive model

46

Angelique has not left her house for two years. She is completely terrified of going out. Based on this description, she is probably suffering from

-agoraphobia

47

Dr. Vinard suspects his patient Muriel has conversion disorder and refers her to a psychotherapist. At a follow-up visit, Dr. Vinard learns that Muriel failed to schedule an appointment with the psychotherapist. What is the most likely reason for this?

-Muriel may continue to feel that she has a real medical disorder

48

Within the medical model, distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior are described as

-mental disorders or mental illnesses

49

According to Freud, abnormal behavior results from

-unresolved unconscious conflicts from childhood

50

Which theory would attribute a person’s depression to faulty interpretations of events and distorted thinking patterns?​

cognitive

51

The American Psychiatric Association once considered homosexuality as a type of mental disorder, but no longer does today. This fact is an example of which way that culture influences ideas about abnormality?

-the same behavior may be judged abnormal at some points in time, but not at others

52

Schizophrenia follows a _______ and typically develops _______.

-lifelong course; in late adolescence or early adulthood

53

Which of the following involves the removal of normal restraints that serve to keep impulsive behaviors in check?

-the disinhibition effect

54

Bonnie has been feeling extremely sad for the last two months. She has difficulty getting out of bed to face the day and has lost interest in formerly pleasurable activities. Occasionally, she thinks about committing suicide. She sounds like she may be suffering from ________ disorder.

-major depressive

55

Which of the following biological factors is most likely to be considered in the cognitive explanation of anxiety disorders?​

-minor changes in bodily sensations

56

Although they have different symptoms and characteristics, dissociative disorders and somatic symptom disorders are often grouped together because they both involve _______ defenses against _____.

-psychological; anxiety

57

Denise admires her boss greatly at first. They have an intense and productive working relationship, which then turns volatile. Denise exhibits episodes of anger and self-destructive behaviors at work, and is asked to leave. She finds another job, but the same pattern causes her to lose that position as well. What personality disorder best fits Denise’s behaviorial patterns?

-borderline personality disorder

58

Therapist Charlotte Maley is a behaviorist. She is most likely to suggest that depression is

-the result of losses or shortfalls in reinforcement levels

59

All but which of the following are myths about suicide?

-people who commit suicide are usually suffering from a psychological disorder, but are not insane

60

The basic explanation of dissociative identity disorder is that

-it represents a coping response to severe trauma

61

Pablo has an intense fear of giving oral presentations in class. He also is very fearful of dating. Based on this description, he is probably suffering from​

-social anxiety disorder

62

A personality disorder is defined as a disorder characterized by impairments in identity, in personality traits, and in ____.

-the establishment of empathy or intimacy

63

George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any clothes on. By what criterion is George’s behavior considered abnormal?

-social deviance

64

​In explaining the development of schizophrenia, the diathesis-stress model emphasizes

-the interaction of genetic predispositions and stress

65

Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is false ?

-adolescents who have a friend who attempted suicide are less likely than their peers to attempt suicide themselves

66

Regarding gender and suicide, which of the following statements is true ?

-more women attempt suicide, but more men complete the suicide act

67

Regarding major depressive disorder,

-women are more likely than men to be affected

68

In a manic episode of bipolar disorder, a person might be characterized by all but which of the following?

-difficulty committing to decisions

69

​The patterns of behavior in personality disorders are, in many cases,

-highly resistant to change

70

Eleanor is a quiet 41-year-old housewife. Occasionally, she seems to “become” a 14-year-old male juvenile delinquent. Other times she “becomes” a 52-year-old, foul-mouthed alcoholic. This sounds like a textbook case of ____.

-dissociative identity disorder

71

All of the following are criticisms of the DSM except

-lack of specific criteria for formulating diagnosis

72

If you were to investigate the case studies of a number of people with dissociative identity disorder, you would probably find that these people ____.

-usually demonstrate personalities that are very different from each other

73

Which of the following statements about schizophrenia is true ?

-schizophrenia affects about 1% of the adult population

74

A class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity is known as​

-personality disorders

75

As you wait for a bus, you notice a naked man casually walking down the sidewalk. This behavior is not acceptable and therefore is abnormal based upon the ____ definition of abnormal behavior.​

-deviation from social norms

76

Tatiana is a schizophrenia patient with delusional thinking. Based on this description, what is Tatiana most likely experiencing?

-false firm beliefs

77

After getting into an automobile accident while fighting with her fiancé, Chou reports that she cannot see. Examinations indicate no apparent medical condition. Based on this description, Chou may be suffering from

-functional neurological symptom disorder

78

Which of the following statements best captures the cognitive distortion of “mistaken responsibility”?

-my partner is angry today. I must have done something wrong

79

A major depressive disorder is defined as a disorder characterized by lengthy periods of depressed mood, loss of pleasure in normal activities, disturbances in sleep and appetite, difficulty concentrating, feelings of hopelessness, and ____.

-possible thoughts of suicide

80

Regarding the diathesis-stress model, which of the following statements is false ?

-whether a person having diathesis develops a particular disorder is primarily dependent on his or her cluster of personality traits

81

Which theorists are associated with the humanistic model of understanding behavior?

-Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

82

Garth goes to a psychodynamic therapist for treatment of his anxiety. What will be the goal of Garth’s therapy?​

-to unroot unconscious conflicts that give rise to his anxiety

83

Which way of defining abnormal behavior is most likely to change as society changes over time

-social norms approach

84

A breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations, best describes which psychological disorder?​

-schizophrenia

85

Schizophrenia may involve imbalances in nerve pathways that utilize which neurotransmitter?

dopamine

86

A diathesis is a​

-predisposition or vulnerability to a disorder

87

“I can’t seem to pinpoint why I am so afraid of things. I can’t concentrate on my studies, can’t sleep at night, and I have headaches. I’ve felt like this for more than a year.” This person is most likely describing ____.

-generalized anxiety disorder

88

​Perhaps the earliest idea regarding abnormal behavior was that

-supernatural forces or demonic spirits were at work

89

​Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is false ?

-panic attacks can last more than an hour

90

Diana has borderline personality disorder. Which of the following best describes the major symptoms of her disorder?​

-tendency toward mood swings and stormy relationships with others

91

Edwina is constantly worried. She cannot really identify why she feels this way, and she finds it nearly impossible to relax. Edwina’s therapist believes her symptoms best represent​

-generalized anxiety disorder

92

Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is

-highest among monozygotic twins

93

Humanistic theorists contend that abnormal behavior​

-develops from encountering obstacles on the road to personal growth

94

​The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?​

-Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his health

95

____ is marked by fluctuations between episodes of depression and mania.

-bipolar I disorder

96

Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He goes back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of

-obsessive-compulsive disorder

97

Which of the following statements regarding criteria for determining abnormal behavior is false ?

-the one determining feature of abnormal behavior is unusualness

98

Which ethnic groups have relatively higher rates of suicide?

-caucasian americans and native americans

99

The irrational or excessive fear of enclosed spaces is called​

-claustrophobia

100

Nikita experiences periods of extreme sadness that alternate with periods of euphoric or elevated mood. Based on this description, Nikita is most likely to be suffering from​

-bipolar disorder

101

Regarding genetic factors in schizophrenia, which of the following statements is false ?

-investigators have identified a single gene that is responsible for creating a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia

102

Bipolar disorder was formerly called​

-manic-depression

103

Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?​

-3 to 6%

104

All but which of the following people have a specific phobia?​

-Nicole, who is afraid of venturing out into open places

105

Which theorist is associated with the study of learned helplessness?​

-Martin Seligman

106

Freudian theory contends that depression​

-represents anger turned inwards

107

Because the anxiety is not tied to any particular object in generalized anxiety disorder, this type of anxiety is often described as​

-free-floating

108

Which of the following people can be described as having features of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

-Buckie, who unlocks and locks her door three times before she enters and leaves her home

109

​Ella finds herself extremely frightened whenever she sees a snake. This describes a form of

specific phobia