Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications: Psychology Chapter 13 Flashcards

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The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

cognitive model


Attempts to understand the biological basis of depression has linked it to imbalances in​

-norepinephrine and serotonin


Fannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people’s demands, her therapist may suggest that Fannie’s attempts could lead to​

-distorted self-image


All but which of the following have been implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder?​

-low levels of dopamine production


A psychologist is seeing a client who always talks fast, seems to have incredible energy, makes grandiose plans that would be impossible to carry out, and seems to “bounce off the walls.” If this person never shows signs of depression, he is likely to be suffering from ____.



Reduction of anxiety that occurs when feared objects are avoided is the basis of which explanation of phobic avoidance?

operant conditioning


In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

the role of classical conditioning in the development of phobias


Jurgen has been diagnosed as having a phobia. This means that Jurgen experiences

an irrational or excessive fear of something


Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and singer Elton John. Since she really is not their child, Gina’s belief would be considered a(n)​



The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?​

-Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his health


A stereotypical man with antisocial personality disorder is likely to have been raised in a home characterized by​

-neglect, abuse, and lack of warmth


Tako occasionally finds himself in a state of sheer terror. The sensation lasts for several minutes, and he often believes he is "going crazy." His symptoms most closely describe​

-panic disorder


The type of psychological disorder that attracted Sigmund Freud to the study of psychological factors in abnormal behavior would now be called

-functional neurological symptom disorder


Delusions of ______ describe the most common theme among schizophrenia patients.



Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?​

faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality


In brain imaging studies, people with antisocial personality disorder showed relatively little activity in the amygdala, which normally ____.

pariticipates in recognition of fear and other negative emotions in others


What is the approximate prevalence of bipolar disorder in the adult U.S. population?



Regarding dissociative disorders, which of the following statements is false ?​

-compared to other psychological disorders, dissociative disorders are relatively common


​Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate all of the following except

- psychotic behavior


Approximately how many people are hospitalized for schizophrenia in a given year?

More than 100,000


The fact that antisocial behavioral patterns appear at such an early age and are so difficult to change lends support to the notion that an antisocial personality may be caused by ____.​

Biological factors


Regarding major depressive disorder, ____.

-women are more likely than men to be diagnosed


​Somatic symptom disorder is characterized by physical symptoms ____.

-that do not have underlying medical cause


Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a ____ factor involved in anxiety disorders.



Humanistic theorists contend that abnormal behavior

-develops from encountering obstacles on the road to personal growth


Mira has hallucinations and delusions. Which of the following is a hallucination, as opposed to a delusion?​

-Mira hears critical voices commenting on her every action


​As described in the text, psychological models of abnormal behavior based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of



Regarding major depressive disorder,​

-women are more likely than men to be affected


Which of the following is not one of the criteria used by psychologists to determine whether a behavior is abnormal?



​Different personalities in dissociative identity disorder may demonstrate all of the following except

- different eye colors


Charmaine Coltraine is preoccupied with fears that she has a terrible health problem. Coltraine’s fears are characteristic of

-somatic symptom disorder


In schizophrenia, behavioral excesses are to ____ as behavioral deficits are to ____.

-positive symptoms; negative symptoms


Which anxiety disorder has the highest lifetime prevalence in the population?

-specific phobia


Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?

-faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality


​Steven has bipolar disorder. All of the following may occur during his manic episodes except

- waxy flexibility


Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a ____ factor involved in anxiety disorders.



As described in the text, behavioral models of abnormality assume that abnormal behavior

-is learned in much the same way that normal behavior is learned


All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?

-the majority of people with this disorder engage in criminal activities


Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development.​

-classical conditioning


How do delusions differ from hallucinations?​

-Delusions involve false beliefs while hallucinations involve false perceptions


Dissociative amnesia is ____.​

-a loss of memory with no identifiable physical cause


Hallucinations are

-perceptions that occur without appropriate external stimuli


Exaggerated energy, enthusiasm, and elation are characteristic of ____.



​The most common form of hallucinations, a symptom of schizophrenia, is ____.



The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

cognitive model


Angelique has not left her house for two years. She is completely terrified of going out. Based on this description, she is probably suffering from



Dr. Vinard suspects his patient Muriel has conversion disorder and refers her to a psychotherapist. At a follow-up visit, Dr. Vinard learns that Muriel failed to schedule an appointment with the psychotherapist. What is the most likely reason for this?

-Muriel may continue to feel that she has a real medical disorder


Within the medical model, distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior are described as

-mental disorders or mental illnesses


According to Freud, abnormal behavior results from

-unresolved unconscious conflicts from childhood


Which theory would attribute a person’s depression to faulty interpretations of events and distorted thinking patterns?​



The American Psychiatric Association once considered homosexuality as a type of mental disorder, but no longer does today. This fact is an example of which way that culture influences ideas about abnormality?

-the same behavior may be judged abnormal at some points in time, but not at others


Schizophrenia follows a _______ and typically develops _______.

-lifelong course; in late adolescence or early adulthood


Which of the following involves the removal of normal restraints that serve to keep impulsive behaviors in check?

-the disinhibition effect


Bonnie has been feeling extremely sad for the last two months. She has difficulty getting out of bed to face the day and has lost interest in formerly pleasurable activities. Occasionally, she thinks about committing suicide. She sounds like she may be suffering from ________ disorder.

-major depressive


Which of the following biological factors is most likely to be considered in the cognitive explanation of anxiety disorders?​

-minor changes in bodily sensations


Although they have different symptoms and characteristics, dissociative disorders and somatic symptom disorders are often grouped together because they both involve _______ defenses against _____.

-psychological; anxiety


Denise admires her boss greatly at first. They have an intense and productive working relationship, which then turns volatile. Denise exhibits episodes of anger and self-destructive behaviors at work, and is asked to leave. She finds another job, but the same pattern causes her to lose that position as well. What personality disorder best fits Denise’s behaviorial patterns?

-borderline personality disorder


Therapist Charlotte Maley is a behaviorist. She is most likely to suggest that depression is

-the result of losses or shortfalls in reinforcement levels


All but which of the following are myths about suicide?

-people who commit suicide are usually suffering from a psychological disorder, but are not insane


The basic explanation of dissociative identity disorder is that

-it represents a coping response to severe trauma


Pablo has an intense fear of giving oral presentations in class. He also is very fearful of dating. Based on this description, he is probably suffering from​

-social anxiety disorder


A personality disorder is defined as a disorder characterized by impairments in identity, in personality traits, and in ____.

-the establishment of empathy or intimacy


George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any clothes on. By what criterion is George’s behavior considered abnormal?

-social deviance


​In explaining the development of schizophrenia, the diathesis-stress model emphasizes

-the interaction of genetic predispositions and stress


Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is false ?

-adolescents who have a friend who attempted suicide are less likely than their peers to attempt suicide themselves


Regarding gender and suicide, which of the following statements is true ?

-more women attempt suicide, but more men complete the suicide act


Regarding major depressive disorder,

-women are more likely than men to be affected


In a manic episode of bipolar disorder, a person might be characterized by all but which of the following?

-difficulty committing to decisions


​The patterns of behavior in personality disorders are, in many cases,

-highly resistant to change


Eleanor is a quiet 41-year-old housewife. Occasionally, she seems to “become” a 14-year-old male juvenile delinquent. Other times she “becomes” a 52-year-old, foul-mouthed alcoholic. This sounds like a textbook case of ____.

-dissociative identity disorder


All of the following are criticisms of the DSM except

-lack of specific criteria for formulating diagnosis


If you were to investigate the case studies of a number of people with dissociative identity disorder, you would probably find that these people ____.

-usually demonstrate personalities that are very different from each other


Which of the following statements about schizophrenia is true ?

-schizophrenia affects about 1% of the adult population


A class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity is known as​

-personality disorders


As you wait for a bus, you notice a naked man casually walking down the sidewalk. This behavior is not acceptable and therefore is abnormal based upon the ____ definition of abnormal behavior.​

-deviation from social norms


Tatiana is a schizophrenia patient with delusional thinking. Based on this description, what is Tatiana most likely experiencing?

-false firm beliefs


After getting into an automobile accident while fighting with her fiancé, Chou reports that she cannot see. Examinations indicate no apparent medical condition. Based on this description, Chou may be suffering from

-functional neurological symptom disorder


Which of the following statements best captures the cognitive distortion of “mistaken responsibility”?

-my partner is angry today. I must have done something wrong


A major depressive disorder is defined as a disorder characterized by lengthy periods of depressed mood, loss of pleasure in normal activities, disturbances in sleep and appetite, difficulty concentrating, feelings of hopelessness, and ____.

-possible thoughts of suicide


Regarding the diathesis-stress model, which of the following statements is false ?

-whether a person having diathesis develops a particular disorder is primarily dependent on his or her cluster of personality traits


Which theorists are associated with the humanistic model of understanding behavior?

-Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow


Garth goes to a psychodynamic therapist for treatment of his anxiety. What will be the goal of Garth’s therapy?​

-to unroot unconscious conflicts that give rise to his anxiety


Which way of defining abnormal behavior is most likely to change as society changes over time

-social norms approach


A breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations, best describes which psychological disorder?​



Schizophrenia may involve imbalances in nerve pathways that utilize which neurotransmitter?



A diathesis is a​

-predisposition or vulnerability to a disorder


“I can’t seem to pinpoint why I am so afraid of things. I can’t concentrate on my studies, can’t sleep at night, and I have headaches. I’ve felt like this for more than a year.” This person is most likely describing ____.

-generalized anxiety disorder


​Perhaps the earliest idea regarding abnormal behavior was that

-supernatural forces or demonic spirits were at work


​Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is false ?

-panic attacks can last more than an hour


Diana has borderline personality disorder. Which of the following best describes the major symptoms of her disorder?​

-tendency toward mood swings and stormy relationships with others


Edwina is constantly worried. She cannot really identify why she feels this way, and she finds it nearly impossible to relax. Edwina’s therapist believes her symptoms best represent​

-generalized anxiety disorder


Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is

-highest among monozygotic twins


Humanistic theorists contend that abnormal behavior​

-develops from encountering obstacles on the road to personal growth


​The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?​

-Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his health


____ is marked by fluctuations between episodes of depression and mania.

-bipolar I disorder


Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He goes back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of

-obsessive-compulsive disorder


Which of the following statements regarding criteria for determining abnormal behavior is false ?

-the one determining feature of abnormal behavior is unusualness


Which ethnic groups have relatively higher rates of suicide?

-caucasian americans and native americans


The irrational or excessive fear of enclosed spaces is called​



Nikita experiences periods of extreme sadness that alternate with periods of euphoric or elevated mood. Based on this description, Nikita is most likely to be suffering from​

-bipolar disorder


Regarding genetic factors in schizophrenia, which of the following statements is false ?

-investigators have identified a single gene that is responsible for creating a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia


Bipolar disorder was formerly called​



Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?​

-3 to 6%


All but which of the following people have a specific phobia?​

-Nicole, who is afraid of venturing out into open places


Which theorist is associated with the study of learned helplessness?​

-Martin Seligman


Freudian theory contends that depression​

-represents anger turned inwards


Because the anxiety is not tied to any particular object in generalized anxiety disorder, this type of anxiety is often described as​



Which of the following people can be described as having features of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

-Buckie, who unlocks and locks her door three times before she enters and leaves her home


​Ella finds herself extremely frightened whenever she sees a snake. This describes a form of

specific phobia