Chapter 12 PPT (The Cell Cycle)

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1

Overview : The Key Roles of Cell Division

Always produce____

the same or identical cells

2

Overview : The Key Roles of Cell Division

Go with Cell Theory saying that all cells come from _____

pre-existing cells

3

The Key Role of Cell Division is the ______ of __________.

continuity of life

4

The continuity of life is based upon the _____ of cells, or ______

reproduction, cell division

5

Asexual reproduction has almost no ____

genetic variation

6

Unicellular organisms reproduce by

cell division

7

Unicellular Organisms use ______ for reproduction of ______ from_____

mitosis, same exact, beginning

8

multi=

many

9

Multicellular Organisms depend on cell division for what 3 things

1) development from a fertilize cell

2) Growth

3) Repair

10

Uni=

1

11

Multicellular organisms uses

mitosis

12

The cell division process is an _____ of the cell cycle

integral part

13

life of the cell from the time it's first formed from a _____ until its ____into ____ cells.

dividing parent cell, own division, 2

14

The cell division process cell _____ -> cell ______

created, divides

15

The life cycle of cell is the cell till it ______

dies off

16

Most cell division will produce genetically identical _______ cells

daughter

17

Meiosis exception:

_________ cells

nonidentical

18

Cells duplicate their genetic material regardless if ____ or _____

mitosis, meiosis

19

Before they divide, ensuring that each ____ cell receives an exact copy of the _____, ______

daughter, genetic material , DNA

20

"mitosis" is the type of cell division, keeping the # of chromosomes ______.

constant

21

In mitosis the normal human # of chromosomes are ____ and the normal # of pairs are ______

46 chromosomes, 23 pairs

22

" Meiosis" is the type of cell division that reduces the # of chromosomes in ______

half

23

What happens before meiosis or mitosis?

Duplication of DNA

24

What is the similarity between chromatin vs. chromosomes

DNA with proteins are attached

25

What is the difference between chromatin vs. chromosomes

where they are in the cell cycle

26

Chromatin during cell cycle where cell is ______ dividing

NOT

27

Chromosomes where cell ____ dividing

is

28

What is all of the genetic material in a cell known as

genome

29

Genetic material on chromosomes make them ______

unique

30

Somatic cells are equal to the complete number of ____

chromosomes

31

Mitosis is responsible for

somatic cells

32

meiosis is responsible

gametes in humans

33

The DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into ______

chromosomes

34

What does human somatic cells entail

body cells except reproductive cells

35

Human somatic cells each contain ____ chromosomes

46

36

Human somatic cells each have 1 set inherited from each _____

parent

37

Reproductive cells or gametes are also known as

egg or sperm

38

Each reproductive cell or gametes contain ____ the # of chromosomes

half

39

Reproductive cells or gametes contain 1 set of _____ chromosomes

23

40

Is chromatin thin or thick

thin

41

Is chromosomes thin or thick

thick

42

Eukaryotic chromosomes are made of

chromatin

43

Chromatin is a complex of _____ DNA molecule, that carries _____ of genes on it.

1 long linear , hundreds

44

What does DNA code for

proteins and RNA molecules

45

Genes are units that ____ an organisms ____ traits

specify, inherited

46

______ proteins maintain the structure of the ______ and help control the activity of the _____

associated, chromosomes, genes

47

Right before replication, each chromosome will be the structure of a ______, _______

long, thin chromatin fiber

48

In preparation for cell division ____ is replicated and the chromosomes _____ they become ______, making them______

DNA, Condense/thicken, , coiled and folded , shorter

49

Each duplicated chromosome has ____ sister chromatids, which separate during _______

2, cell division

50

Each chromatid is __________to the other

genetically identical

51

The chromatids are held together in the "middle" by a ______ and ______

centromere, cohesins

52

What are cohesins

adhesive proteins

53

The centromere is a

thick protein

54

Eukaryotic cell division consists of what 3 things

mitosis, cytokinesis, meiosis

55

What is the division of the nucleus known as

mitosis

56

What is the division of the cytosol known as

cytokinesis

57

In mitosis : the division of the nucleus to form ___, _______, daughter cells to each other and the parent cell

2, genetically identical

58

In meiosis what are produced

sex cells

59

In meiosis sex cells are produced only with

1 set of chromosomes

60

Where does meiosis occur

the gonads

61

What are the gonads

ovaries and testes

62

What are ovaries the production of

egg

63

What are testes the production of

sperm

64

_________, fuses ____, gametes together and restores the chromosome number to ___

fertilization, 2, 46

65

The cell cycle consists of what two phases

interphase and the mitotic phase

66

Mitosis in the cell cycle is the ______ part

shortest

67

mitosis in the cell cycle consists of what 2 things

mitosis and cytokinesis

68

Interphase accounts for _____% of time within the cell cycle

90

69

Interphase accounts for when the cell _____, and _____ to chromosomes

grows and copies

70

Interphase can be divided into

subphases

71

What are interphases 3 subphases called

G1, S, G2

72

The G1 phase is known as

the first gap

73

In the G1 phase, the cell _____ and produces ______ & _______

grows, proteins, organelles

74

The G1 phase goes through_______ processes

metabolic

75

Depending on the cell how many hours does the G1 phase take

5-6 hours

76

The S phase is known as

synthesis

77

The S phase is committed to ______

cell division

78

Why is the S phase committed to cell division

because DNA replication occurs

79

The S phase takes how many hours?

10-12 hours

80

The G2 phase is known as

the second gap

81

The G2 phase is where ____________ for cell division happens

complete preparation

82

In the G2 phase the cell enters the ______ stage

mitotic

83

The G2 phase takes how many hours

4-6 hours

84

How many hours does the mitotic phase take

1 hour

85

How many stages are there in mitosis

5

86

What are the 5 stages of mitosis

prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

87

What happens after the 5 stages of mitosis occurs

cytokinesis

88

In prophase ______ become ______

chromatin , chromosomes

89

In prophase _________ starts to fragment

the nuclear envelope

90

In prophase __________ start to appear

Centrosomes (Spindle fibers)-> mitotic spindle

91

In prophase 1 centrosome is located at ____ pole and the 1 other centrosome is located at _____ pole

north, south

92

In prophase with the 2 centrosomes located at north and south pole they extend 1 _____ to the next

centrosome

93

Asters come off of

centrosomes

94

Asters are also known as

microtubules

95

The aster on the north pole and the aster of the south pole attach to the ______

cell membrane

96

What is the purpose of the aster on the north pole and the aster of the south pole attaching to the cell membrane

to keep stability during the process

97

The kinetochore connects ________ to ______

sister chromatids, spindle fibers

98

In metaphase sister chromatids are found on their _____ spindle fiber

OWN

99

In metaphase the sister chromatids _________ at the very ________ of the cell

line up, middle

100

In metaphase the very middle of the cell is known as the

metaphase plate

101

Metaphase is the _____ stage

longest

102

Why is metaphase the longest stage

to make sure everything is correct

103

In anaphase ________ split

sister chromatids

104

Anaphase is the ______ stage

fastest

105

In anaphase chromatids ______ toward the oposite poles causing the cell to ____

pull apart, elongate

106

______ & _______ start at the same time in mitosis

telophase , cytokinesis

107

In telophase ____________ start to form

2 daughter nuclei

108

In telophase ______ arises with _______

nuclear envelope, ER

109

In telophase _______ become less condensed

chromosomes

110

microtubules are known to used in

the cytoskeleton

111

The mitotic spindle is an ________ of microtubules and associated ______

apparatus, proteins

112

The mitotic spindle controls __________ movement during mitosis

chromosome

113

The spindle arises from the

centrosomes

114

Centrosomes are ____________ that function throughout the cell cycle

nonmembraneous organelle

115

The centrosomes purpose is to ________ the cell's ______

organize, microtubule

116

The centrosomes include _________ &_____________

spindle microtubules, asters

117

In animals they contain a pair of _______ in the __________

centrioles, center

118

Centrioles complete function is ___

unknown

119

why are centrioles complete function unknown

since spindle fibers are still formed when absent such as in plants

120

Kinetochore microtubules attach to the ________ of chromosomes

kinetochores

121

The Kinetochore microtubules move the _______ to the __________

chromosome, metaphase plate

122

The kinetochore is a structure of ___________associated with _________of ____________ at the ___________

proteins, specific sections, chromosomal DNA, centromere

123

In anaphase sister chromatids separate by _______ splitting the ______ that hold the chromatid together

enzymes, cohesins

124

In anaphase sister chromatids separate by enzymes splitting the cohesins that hold the chromatid together is known as

separase

125

Separase move along the _______ toward the opposite ends of the cell

kinetochore microtubules

126

______ proteins bring in the _______ by the ________ mechanism

motor, microtubules, pac-man

127

The pac-man mechanism is where you are having motor proteins at the kinetochores _________ the microtubules in direction of the ________ causing the _____ to move to opposite poles

breaking down, centrosomes, chromatids

128

The nonkinetochore microtubules ______ and __________ each other causing the ________ of the cell

overlap, push against, elongation

129

In telophase genetically identical daughter nuclei form at _______ of the cell

opposite ends

130

In telophase the spindle _____

dissembles

131

In animal cells cytokinesis occurs by a process known as

cleavage

132

cleavage is the forming of a __________

cleavage furrow

133

In animal cells ________ and _________ contract creating the ________ until 2 _______ are formed

actin, myosin, cleavage furrow, daughter cells

134

In animal cells the 2 daughter cells are formed near the old _________

metaphase plate

135

In plant cells, during cytokinesis a _____ forms by ______ from the _____.

cell plate, vesicles, golgi app.

136

In plant cells, during cytokinesis a cell plates function is to carry to form a

material, cell wall

137

Prokaryotes (bacteria) reproduce by a type of cell division called

binary fission

138

Prokaryotes DNA consists of a _____ molecule w/ associated _____

circular, proteins

139

In prokaryotes the______ chromosome begins to ______at ___ site

bacterial, replicate, A,

140

In prokaryotes the bacterial chromosome begins to replicate at a site called the origin of replication producing 2 origins

origin of replication

141

In prokaryotes when the bacterial chromosome begins to replicate at a site ( the origin of replication) it produces _____

2 origins

142

In prokaryotes as replication continues, one ____moves to the ____ pole of the cell and the cell _____

origin, opposite, elongates

143

In prokaryotes when replications complete, the _____ moves ___ and a new _____ is _____

plasma membrane, inward, cell wall, deposited

144

In prokaryotes if it contains a cell wall replication is not complete until ________ are formed

2 new daughter cells

145

In binary fission the_____chromosome _____

bacterial, replicates

146

In binary fission the two ____ chromosomes actively move ____

daughter, apart

147

Concept 12.3: The cell cycle is regulated by a __________system

molecular control

148

The frequency of cell division varies with the

type of cell

149

Skin cells and RBC divide

often

150

nerve cells and muscle cells _____ divide

never

151

The cell cycle differences result from ______ at the_____ level

regulation, molecular

152

Molecules present in the ______ control the progression to ____ and ____ phase

cytoplasm, S, M

153

The Cell Cycle Control System is the______ events of the cell cycle

sequential

154

The events of the cell cycle are directed by a _________ system, w/ _____ like a ____ machine

distinct cell cycle control,triggers, washing

155

The clock has ________ checkpoints where the cell cycle ______ until a _____ signal is received

specific, stops, go-ahead

156

The checkpoints ensure_________ have occurred before continuing

crucial cellular processes

157

What are the three major checkpoints:

G1, G2, and M

158

G1 checkpoint is also known as the

restriction point

159

G1 checkpoint (restriction point) is the most _______

important

160

G1 checkpoint (restriction point) is most imp. because if it receives the go-ahead, it will finish cell division.
If not, it goes into G0 phase

go-ahead signal, cell division

161

In the G1 checkpoint (restriction point) if it does not receive a _______it goes into ____

go-ahead signal, G0 phase

162

The G0 phase is the ____ phase that __ cells and __ cells are in

non-dividing, nerve, muscle

163

In the G0 phase If a cell can______, it can be brought back into the ___ phase

divide, G1

164

Two types of regulatory protein molecules:

kinases and cyclins

165

Kinases are enzymes that ________ or _______ other _______ by ________ them

activate, inactivate, proteins, phosphorylating

166

Some kinases give the go-ahead signal @ ____ and ___ checkpoints

G1, G2

167

Many kinases are present in the _______ in an ______ form

growing cell, inactive

168

for a kinase to be actived, they need a ______ to _____ to it

cyclin, attach

169

Cyclin is a

protein

170

Cyclin occurs in

cyclically fluctuating concentration

171

When cyclin is attached its called ________ or ______

cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdks

172

Cdks rise and fall w/ changes in the ________ of its _______

concentration, cyclin partners

173

MPF is known as

maturation-promoting factor

174

MPF (maturation-promoting factor) is a _______that triggers a cell’s passage past the _____ checkpoint into the ____ phase

cyclin-Cdk complex, G2, M

175

At the G1 checkpoint, animal cells have @ least ______ that operate it

3 Cdk proteins

176

An example of an internal signal is

kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules sending a molecular signal that delays anaphase

177

Some external signals are

growth factors, density-dependent inhibition

178

growth factors are ____, _____ by certain cells that ______ other cells to _____

proteins, released, stimulate, divide

179

density-dependent inhibition, in which _____ cells stop _____

crowded, dividing

180

Most animal cells exhibit

anchorage dependence

181

Most animal cells exhibit anchorage dependence, meaning that they must be attached to a _____ in order to divide

substratum

182

Cancer cells do not respond normally to the

body’s control mechanisms

183

Cancer cells divide _______ and _______ other tissues

excessively, invade

184

Cancer cells don’t respond to __________ ,______or when growth factors are ____

density-dependent inhibition,anchorage dependence,depleted

185

Cancer cells may not need growth factors to ____ and _____

grow, divide

186

Cancer cells may make their_______

own growth factor

187

Cancer cells may convey a _______ signal without the presence of the ______

growth factor’s, growth factor

188

Cancer cells may have an abnormal ______

cell cycle control system

189

Cancer cells can be _______

immortal

190

Transformation is the process that converts a ____ cell to a ____ cell
Usually body will attack it but if it doesn’t or the cancerous cell can’t be destroyed, it will produce more and become a tumor

normal, cancer

191

Usually with the transformation process the body will ____ it

attack

192

Usually with the transformation process the body will attack it but if it doesn’t or the cancerous cell can’t be destroyed, it will _______ and become a _____

produce more , tumor

193

A Tumor: is a mass of _____ within ____

abnormal cells, normal tissue

194

If the abnormal cells stay in the original site, it is called a _____ tumor

benign

195

Tumors can be removed by ______

surgery

196

Malignant tumor is where it become ___ and___the function or______ organs

invasive, impairs, 1 or more

197

If a person has a malignant tumor they ____

have cancer

198

A tumor that is localized may be treated w/ ___

radiation

199

A tumor that is localized may be treated w/ radiation because the ____ in cancer cells once ____, _____ itself

DNA, damaged, can't repair

200

________ known to treat tumors

Chemotherapy

201

Side effects due to effect on ____ cells

normal

202

Malignant tumors invade _______ and can _______

surrounding tissues, metastasizes

203

Exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body where they may form______ tumors

secondary