Biology 125 Chapter 11 Flashcards


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1

What is the central nervous system composed of?

Brain and Spinal Cord

2

Electrical impulses are transmitted between components of the central nervous system via?

interneurons

3

Axons branch into axon terminals, which have _______ located at the terminal ends.

Bulbs

4

Oligodendrocytes are similar to Schwann cells in that they are a?

are a type of neuroglial cell.

5

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that results from nerve damage in the?

spinal cord.

6

During what phase of an action potential do the sodium channels close and potassium channels open, releasing potassium from the neuron?

repolarization

7

What occurs during the absolute refractory period to a neuron?

The neuron cannot generate an action potential.

8

During repolarization of a neuron what happens?

sodium channels close and potassium rushes out of the cell to temporarily re-establish the membrane potential

Potassium moves out of the axon

9

During this process, influx of ____ cause vesicles in the axon bulb to fuse with the cell membrane, releasing ____________.

Ca2+, neurotransmitter

10

From an evolutionary standpoint, this structure is considered the oldest, most primitive division of the brain.

hindbrain

11

Cells that provide direct protection and physical support to neurons are?

neuroglial cells.

12

The central nervous system is enclosed by membranes or meniges called the?

dura mater, pia mater , and arachnoid

13

Saltatory conduction is?

the process of conduction leaping along myelinated neurons

14

During a brain surgery, the surgeon passes an instrument through the dura mater. What part does he pass through next?

arachnoid

15

Excitatory neurotransmitters encourage the generation of new electrical impulses by stimulating?

stimulating depolarization of postsynaptic neurons

16

Region of brain the coordinates antagonistic muscle movements?

cerebellum.

17

The three main anatomical and functional divisions of the brain are the?

forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain

18

The reticular formation is associated with?

so-called reptilian brain that is necessary for survival; has both ascending and descending pathways with multiple nuclei

19

The left and right sides of the cerebrum are interconnected by the

corpus callosum

20

Regulation of the production of breast milk, carbohydrate metabolism, and temperature control are some of the functions of the?

hypothalamus

21

Preganglionic motor neurons of the _________ division of the nervous system originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.

sympathetic division

22

Insufficient production of acetylcholine in the synapses of the brain, abnormal tangled neurons, and large deposits of beta amyloid are problems associated with what disease?

Alzheimer's disease.