Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: 2-Development-Embryonic Period Flashcards


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1

Cleavage

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The rapid mitotic division of the zygote, starting the first week of development

2

Blastomeres

Progressively smaller cells produced by cleavage

3

Morula

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A solid ball of cells formed 3-4 days after fertilization

4

Blastocyst

  • A fluid filled ball of cells that enters the uterine cavity
  • Occurs a day after the morula is formed
5

Implantation

The attachment of the blastocyst to the endometrium 6–8 days after fertilization

6

Inner cell mass

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  • Where the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium
  • Embryoblast
7

How does the endometrium respond to the blastocyst

  • Becomes more vascularized
  • Endometrial glands enlarge
8

Decidua

The portion of the endometrium that is modified after implantation

9

Week One - 12-24 hours after ovulation

Fertilization

10

Week One - 30 hours after fertilation

Cleavage

11

Week One - 3-4 Days after fertilization

Morula

12

Week One - 4 1/2 - 5 days after fertilization

Blastocyst enters uterine cavity

13

Week One - 6 days after fertilization

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Implantation

14

Trilaminar embryonic disc

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  • Formed during growth of developing embryo
  • Composed of cells which develop to become the fetus
  • visible 3 weeks post-fertilization
15

Three primary germ layers of Trilaminar embryonic disc

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  • The ectoderm is the superficial layer
  • The mesoderm is in the middle
  • The endoderm forms the inner layer
16

Ectoderm

  • The superficial layer of the Trilaminar embryonic disc
  • Differentiates into the tissues of the brain and nerves, and the epidermis of the skin
17

Mesoderm

  • The middle layer of the Trilaminar embryonic disc
  • Matures to form blood, muscles, bones, and other connective tissue derivatives
18

Endoderm

  • The inner layer of the Trilaminar embryonic disc
  • Gives rise to the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and several other organs; also the endothelial lining of blood vessels
19

Extraembryonic membranes

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Formed during growth of developing embryo

  • amnion - Innermost layer
  • yolk sac
  • allantois
  • chorion - Outermost layer
20

Amnion

  • Innermost Extraembryonic membrane
  • Forms a protecting amniotic cavity (filled with amniotic fluid) around the embryo
21

Yolk sac

  • Layer of Extraembryonic membrane
  • Provides nutrients and becomes the site of early blood formation
22

Allantois

  • Layer of Extraembryonic membrane
  • Helps form the umbilical cord, works gas exchange and waste removal
23

Chorion

  • Outermost layer of Extraembryonic membrane
  • Forms the fetal portion of the placenta and takes over production of hCG
24

Where does the placenta develop from

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The chorionic villi of the embryo and endometrium of the mother

25

What is managed in the placenta

  • Nutrients and wastes are managed
  • Mixing of fetal and mothers blood is prevented
26

What hormone secretion is taken over by the placenta

Occurs as the corpus luteum in the ovary gradually atrophies.

  • hCG
  • estrogen
  • progesterone
27

Organogenesis

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The 4th-8th weeks of development

28

When does embryonic folding occurs (head, laterals, tail)

During week 4

29

When have all major body systems started to develop

By the end of week 8