LECTURE test 1 review bio 1406 Flashcards


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1

A controlled experiment

Control group

2

A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a

A population

3

You find yourself standing next to a plant. List the things you and the plant have in common?

use oxygen and carbon to survive, are linear,

4

A friend of yours calls to say that his car would not start this morning. He asks for your help. You say that you think the battery must be dead. If so, then jump-starting the car from a good battery will solve the problem. In doing so, you are doing what part of the scientific process?

hypothesis

5

In the process of science, what do you test?

collected data

6

What four elements make up approximately 96 percent of living matter?

hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen

7

Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Which trace element that is required by humans and other vertebrates for normal thyroid function.

Iodine

8

A covalent chemical bond is one in which

outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms.

9

What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?

a polar covalent bond

10

 Explain the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

one of the atoms sharing electrons is more electronegative than the other atom.

11

Water molecules are attracted to one another by

Hydrogen Bond

12

How many electrons are involved in a single covalent bond?

a single covalent bond has 2 atoms which hold 1 electron each atom

2

13

An carbon atom has four electrons in its valence shell. What types of covalent bonds is it capable of forming?

single, double, or triple

14

When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of bond results?

a nonpolar covalent bond

15

In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by

a polar covalent bond

16

The partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to the partial positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?

a hydrogen bond

17

Explain why does water display a partial negative charge?

electrons shared between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms spend more time around the oxygen atom nucleus than around the hydrogen atom nucleus.

18

To act as an effective coolant in a car's radiator, a substance has to have the capacity to absorb a great deal of heat. You have a reference book with tables listing the physical properties of many liquids. In choosing a coolant for your car, which table would you check first?

specific heat

19

Which of the following effects can occur because of the high surface tension of water?

A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.

20

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are

nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

21

Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize into a gas?

hydrogen bonds

22
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Label the below diagram: water, oxygen, hydrogen, partial negative charge, partial positive charge, solute

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hydrogen oxygen na- the rest is positively charged

23

How would you bring an acidic solution to neutral?

you have a weak acid or a weak base half ionized in water

24

Why are molecules considered organic?

Organic molecules exist in all living things

25

What types of covalent bonds can carbon form?

carbon-carbon and carbon hydrogen bonds

26

Why is carbon so important in biology?

It can form a variety of carbon skeletons and host functional groups

27

The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to

the chemical versatility of carbon atoms

28

A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond(s) with other atoms?

covalent

29
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The figure above shows the structures of glucose and fructose. They both have the molecular formula C6H12O6, but how do they differ.

structural isomers

30

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids? Draw these functional groups.

carboxyl and amino

31

Which class of organic molecules does NOT include polymers?

Lipids

32

List all polymers discussed in class and the group in which they belong.

1.carbohydrates,
2.lipids,
3.proteins, and
4.nucleic acids.

Monomers are the smaller part of the macromolecules (polymers=many chained together).
•Monomers are linked together to form polymers through dehydration reactions, which remove water.
•Polymers are broken apart by hydrolysis, the addition of water.
•These reactions are mediated by enzymes, specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.

33

Contrast dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

Dehydration means to take water out.

Hydrolysis is the separation of two macromolecules by adding water.

34

Which polysaccharide is an important component in the structure of many animals and fungi?

Chitin

35

A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6Â would be considered a what?

glucose

carbohydrate and monosaccharide only

36

List all things lactose can be considered.

as a disaccharide

37

 In what types of organisms are starch and cellulose found? What is their function?

They are both polymers of glucose

38

List the types of covalent bonds discussed in class and the organic group in which they belong.

...

39

Phospholipids and triglycerides both

lipids

40

Describe how the structure of phospholipids interacts with water molecules.

...

41

Explain why chemically vegetable oil is a liquid at room temperature while animal fats are solid.

...

42

Contrast saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

...

43

List terms that describe how lipids behave in water.

...

44

What are the monomers of proteins?

Nucleotides

45

List the components of an amino acid.

Components: amino, carboxyl, H, R (variable) group
Side chain classes: nonpolar, polar, acidic, basic

46

What component of amino acid structure varies among different amino acids?

...

47

Describe how protein structure and function are correlated? How can the structure of a protein be altered?

...

48

List the examples of proteins and lipids discussed in class.

...

49

Discuss the levels of protein structure folding.

primary structurelinear aequence of amino acids

secondary structurealpha helix and beta pleated sheet formed by hudrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone

tertiary structure3d shape formed by interactions between r groups

quaternary structureassociation of multiple polypeptides

50

What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

nucleotides

ribonucleotide

Deoxyribonucleotide

51

List the purine nucleotides.

nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine

52

List the pyrimidine nucleotides.

nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil

53

List the components of a nucleotide?

A sugar (called deoxyribose)

A Phosphate (1 phosphorus atom joined to 4 oxygen atoms)

One of 4 bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine)

54

What is the primary functions of RNA?

1. Messanger RNA (mRNA)
2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3. Transfer RNA (tRNA)

55

When nucleotides polymerize to form a nucleic acid what bonds are formed

a covalent bond forms between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of a second

56

Contrast DNA and RNA.

While the sugar present in a RNA molecule is ribose, the sugar present in a molecule of DNA is deoxyribose

57

If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases, ATTGCA, the other complementary strand would have the sequence

TAACGT

58

A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is

Phospholipids

59

You now know that the old cliché "oil and water don't mix" is true. Why?

Water exhibits polarity and oil does not.

60

If you eat a hamburger, you are mainly eating ground-up beef muscle tissue. What levels of organization are represented in this ground-up muscle?

Organelle, cell, and tissue

61

If you change the number of neutrons in an atom, you create

an isotope

62

Bonds between two atoms that are equally electronegative are

nonpolar covalent bonds

63

A covalent bond is likely to be polar when

one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative than the other atom.

64

Water molecules can form hydrogen bonds with

compounds that have polar covalent bonds.

65

What can be attributed to water's high specific heat?

A lake heats up more slowly than the air around it.

66

Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?

hydrogen bonds

67

A strong acid like HCl dissociates

ionizes completely in an aqueous solution.

68

How many electron pairs does carbon share to complete its valence shell?

4

69

How many molecules of water are used to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?

10

70

Steroids are considered to be lipids because they

A family of lipids distinguished by a bulky four-ring structure

71
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Monosaccharide Carbohydrate

72
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Protein

73
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Polysaccharides

74
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triglyceride

75
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Nucleotide

76
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Lipid and Fatty acid

77
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Amino Acid

78
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Carbohydrate

79
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Lipid and Fatty acid

80
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Phospholipid

81
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Carbohydrate

82

...

Amino acid

83
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Amino Acid

84

...

lipid and fatty acid

85
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...

86
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Nucleotide

87
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...

88
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...

89
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...