Self-tests: 18 & 19

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Microbiology
Chapters 18, 19
Microbiology 205 Fall semester 2012
updated 9 years ago by jenkarmata
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1

Makes use of the fact that certain viruses will cause agglutination of red blood cells.

Hemagglutination inhibition test

pg. 517

2

The absence of complement is indicated by hemolysis.

Complement-fixation test

3

A precipitation-type test in which wells are cut into the agar on a Petri dish.

Immunodiffusion test

pg. 515

4

Soluble antigens are detected by binding them to small latex particles, for example, & causing their agglutination.

Indirect agglutination test

pg. 516

5

The ELISA used to screen for AIDS antibodies in serum.

Indirect ELISA

6

Often used as a confirmatiory test for HIV infection.

Western blotting

pg. 521 *most common

7

Subunit vaccine using genetically engineered organisms to produce it.

Recombinant vaccine

pg. 508

8

Unwanted components are removed from a whole-cell vaccine.

Acellular vaccine

9

An inactivated toxin.

Toxoid

pg. 508

10

"Naked" DNA or RNA injected into muscle.

Nucleic-acid vaccine

pg. 508

11

Chemical additive that improves effectiveness of a vaccine.

Adjuvant

pg.511

12

The probability that a positive diagnostic test will not be reactive if a specimen is true negative.

Specificity

pg. 512

13

The probability that a diagnostic test is reactive if the specimen is a true positive.

Sensitivity

pg. 512

14

A monoclonal antibody combined w/a toxin & programmed to react w/a cancer cell.

Conjugated Mab

15

A monoclonal antibody in which the variable regions are from mouse cells & the constant regions are from human sources.

Chimeric Mab
pg. 514

16

An antibody-producing plasma cell fused w/a cancerous cell.

Hybridoma

pg.512

17

Before the invention of modern vaccines, material from smallpox scabs was inoculated into the bloodstream to give immunity to the disease; this was called ____________.

variolation

18

The measure of the concentration of antibody in serum is called ________.

titer

19

Fluorescein-labeled antihuman gamma globulin would be used in the __________ fluorescent antibody test.

indirect

20

A vaccine using a living, weakened organism is called _________.

attinuated

21

For diagnostic purposes, a rise in _______ during the course of a disease is very significant.

titer

22

A disease can be controlled if most, but not all, of the population is immune; this is called _______ immunity.

herd

23

Polysaccharide vaccines can be enhanced in effectiveness by adding toxoids such as diptheria; these are so-called ________ vaccines.

conjugate

24

Hypersensitivity.

Allergy

25

Hypersensitivity specifically involving the interaction of humoral antibodies of the IgE class w/mast cells.

Anaphylaxis

26

A skin graft from a brother or sister.

Allograft

27

The heart of a baboon transplanted to a human.

Xenotransplantation product

28

A term used for an antigen causing hypersensitivity reactions.

Allergen

29

A skin graft transferred from the thigh to the nose of the same person.

Autograft

30

A drug used for transplantation surgery.

Cyclosporine

31

A drug that suppresses cell-mediated immunity.

Cyclosporine

32

The reason why transplantation of a cornea is usually successful.

Privileged site

33

The mediator of a type 1 reaction that affects the blood capillaries & results in swelling & reddening.

Histamine

34

The development of blocking antibodies by reapeated exposure to small doses of the antigen.

Desensitization

35

The naturally learned ability of the body not to respond immunologically against its own antigens.

Immunological tolerance

36

Destruction of a transplant-especially a xenograft-by antibodies & complement, usually within hours.

Hyperacute rejection

37

Inhibition of the immune response by drugs, radiation & so on.

Immunosuppression

38

The treatment of cancer of other disease conditions by using monoclonal antibodies with which toxic compounds have been combined.

Immunotherapy

39

A mediator released from an antigen-triggered mast cell.

Leukotrienes

40

Sirolimus

Drug used for immuno-suppression

41

The destruction of Rh+ RBC's by antibodies of maternal orgin in a newborn infant; the antibodies are derived from the mother.

Erythroblastosis fetalis

42

Individuals in whom ABO antigens are present in body fluids such as saliva & semen.

Secretors

43

Hematopoietic.

Blood-forming

44

Tuberculin test.

Type IV(cell-mediated) reaction

45

Asthma.

Type I(anaphylaxis reaction

46

Glomerulonephritis.

Type III (immune complex) reaction

47

Poison ivy dermatitis.

Type IV (cell-mediated) reaction

48

Graves' disease.

Type II (cytotoxic) reaction

49

Reaction to an insect sting.

Type I (anaphylaxis) reaction

50

Persistent lymphadenopathy.

Phase 1

51

Full-blown AIDS.

Phase 3

52

Autoimmune condition in which antibodies coat the receptor sites at which nerve impulses reach the muscles.

Myasthenia gravis

53

An immune reaction against the thyroid gland receptor sites that causes excessive production of thyroid hormones.

Graves' disease

54

Immune response against M protein of streptococci causes damage to kidneys.

Glomerulonephritis

55

Antibodies formed against the body's own DNA; damage to kidney glomeruli is the most damaging factor in the disease.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

56

T cells destroy the thyroid gland.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

57

T cells attack the myelin sheath of the nervous system.

Multiple sclerosis

58

Isolated from earliest stage of an embryo.

Embryonic stem cells

59

Progenitors of blood & lymphatic cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells

60

Genitically reprogrammed adult stem cells.

Induced pluripotent stem cells

61

Endotoxins from gram-negative bacteria stimulate macrophages to produce the cancer-inhibiting ________ factor.

Tumor necrosis

62

The type of anaphylaxis that develops rapidly after an antigen is presented to a sensitized host, & that may result in life-threatening shock, is _______ anaphylaxis.

systemic

63

In the ABO system, absence of antigens makes a person blood type _____.

O

64

A graft between identical twins is a(n) ________.

isograph

65

MHC stands for ________.

Major histocompatibility complex

66

HLA stans for _________.

Human leukocyte antigens

67

One result of immunosuppression could be development of graft ______disease.

Versus host

68

The treatment for systemic anaphylaxis is to administer an injection of ____________ promptly.

epineferin

69

Destruction of some clones of lymphocytes having the potential to respond to self-antigens during fetal life is call _____________.

Clonal deletion

70

The cornea does not usually reject transplants; it is an example of a(n)___________ site

privledged

71

Pig heart valves are not antigenic & are an example of ____________ tissue.

privledged

72

About 85% of the population is Rh _________.

positive

73

Immune-caused destruction of WBC's is called

agranulocytosis

74

Supply the missing word: highly active _____ therapy.

antiretroviral