Microbiology: Self-tests: 18 & 19 Flashcards
Makes use of the fact that certain viruses will cause agglutination of red blood cells.
Hemagglutination inhibition test
The absence of complement is indicated by hemolysis.
A precipitation-type test in which wells are cut into the agar on a Petri dish.
Soluble antigens are detected by binding them to small latex particles, for example, & causing their agglutination.
Indirect agglutination test
The ELISA used to screen for AIDS antibodies in serum.
Often used as a confirmatiory test for HIV infection.
pg. 521 *most common
Subunit vaccine using genetically engineered organisms to produce it.
Unwanted components are removed from a whole-cell vaccine.
An inactivated toxin.
"Naked" DNA or RNA injected into muscle.
Chemical additive that improves effectiveness of a vaccine.
The probability that a positive diagnostic test will not be reactive if a specimen is true negative.
The probability that a diagnostic test is reactive if the specimen is a true positive.
A monoclonal antibody combined w/a toxin & programmed to react w/a cancer cell.
A monoclonal antibody in which the variable regions are from mouse cells & the constant regions are from human sources.
An antibody-producing plasma cell fused w/a cancerous cell.
Before the invention of modern vaccines, material from smallpox scabs was inoculated into the bloodstream to give immunity to the disease; this was called ____________.
The measure of the concentration of antibody in serum is called ________.
Fluorescein-labeled antihuman gamma globulin would be used in the __________ fluorescent antibody test.
A vaccine using a living, weakened organism is called _________.
For diagnostic purposes, a rise in _______ during the course of a disease is very significant.
A disease can be controlled if most, but not all, of the population is immune; this is called _______ immunity.
Polysaccharide vaccines can be enhanced in effectiveness by adding toxoids such as diptheria; these are so-called ________ vaccines.
Hypersensitivity specifically involving the interaction of humoral antibodies of the IgE class w/mast cells.
A skin graft from a brother or sister.
The heart of a baboon transplanted to a human.
A term used for an antigen causing hypersensitivity reactions.
A skin graft transferred from the thigh to the nose of the same person.
A drug used for transplantation surgery.
A drug that suppresses cell-mediated immunity.
The reason why transplantation of a cornea is usually successful.
The mediator of a type 1 reaction that affects the blood capillaries & results in swelling & reddening.
The development of blocking antibodies by reapeated exposure to small doses of the antigen.
The naturally learned ability of the body not to respond immunologically against its own antigens.
Destruction of a transplant-especially a xenograft-by antibodies & complement, usually within hours.
Inhibition of the immune response by drugs, radiation & so on.
The treatment of cancer of other disease conditions by using monoclonal antibodies with which toxic compounds have been combined.
A mediator released from an antigen-triggered mast cell.
Drug used for immuno-suppression
The destruction of Rh+ RBC's by antibodies of maternal orgin in a newborn infant; the antibodies are derived from the mother.
Individuals in whom ABO antigens are present in body fluids such as saliva & semen.
Type IV(cell-mediated) reaction
Type I(anaphylaxis reaction
Type III (immune complex) reaction
Poison ivy dermatitis.
Type IV (cell-mediated) reaction
Type II (cytotoxic) reaction
Reaction to an insect sting.
Type I (anaphylaxis) reaction
Autoimmune condition in which antibodies coat the receptor sites at which nerve impulses reach the muscles.
An immune reaction against the thyroid gland receptor sites that causes excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Immune response against M protein of streptococci causes damage to kidneys.
Antibodies formed against the body's own DNA; damage to kidney glomeruli is the most damaging factor in the disease.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
T cells destroy the thyroid gland.
T cells attack the myelin sheath of the nervous system.
Isolated from earliest stage of an embryo.
Embryonic stem cells
Progenitors of blood & lymphatic cells.
Hematopoietic stem cells
Genitically reprogrammed adult stem cells.
Induced pluripotent stem cells
Endotoxins from gram-negative bacteria stimulate macrophages to produce the cancer-inhibiting ________ factor.
The type of anaphylaxis that develops rapidly after an antigen is presented to a sensitized host, & that may result in life-threatening shock, is _______ anaphylaxis.
In the ABO system, absence of antigens makes a person blood type _____.
A graft between identical twins is a(n) ________.
MHC stands for ________.
Major histocompatibility complex
HLA stans for _________.
Human leukocyte antigens
One result of immunosuppression could be development of graft ______disease.
The treatment for systemic anaphylaxis is to administer an injection of ____________ promptly.
Destruction of some clones of lymphocytes having the potential to respond to self-antigens during fetal life is call _____________.
The cornea does not usually reject transplants; it is an example of a(n)___________ site
Pig heart valves are not antigenic & are an example of ____________ tissue.
About 85% of the population is Rh _________.
Immune-caused destruction of WBC's is called
Supply the missing word: highly active _____ therapy.