describe the anatomical position
"standing at attention" body erect, feet slightly apart but with palms facing out and thumbs away from the body
what is the importance of directional terms?
allows us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another, saves words and it less ambiguous
body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions, even though the outside world changes constantly
negative and positive feedback
Negative- changes the variable back to its original state
Positive- the output enhances the original stimulus.
Negative inhibit and Positive enhance
Explain the pH scale. which side indicates a base? Which side indicates an acid? Which accepts Hydrogen? Which releases Hydrogen?
pH scale is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. anything higher than 7 is a base and anything lower than 7 is an acid. 7 is neutral. A base accepts H+ and an Acid releases H+
Why does spraying a hypertonic salt solution into the nasal cavity relieve a swollen, stuffy nose?
My nose cells will lose water from them (since my nose is hypotonic to the solution) making my think snot/congestion thinner. The salt (hypertonic) solution will draw out excess water from the mucus membrane (osmosis) reducing space the inflamed area occupies.
What are the consequences of drinking excessive amounts of water (hypotonic to the body fluids)? Drinking salt water?
Water hypotonic means body hypertonic= more water going to the body, body loses salt causing brain and cell swelling.
If body is hypotonic and salt water is hypertonic= the body will pull water out of the cells causing dehydration.
DNA vs RNA
DNA- guidelines for living organisms, must follow to exist and remain functional.
RNA-helps carry out DNA's guidelines. A copy of DNA
What do enzymes do? How? Which macromolecule of life do they belong to?
Enzymes speed up/ increase chemical reactions. they breakdown larger molecules. Proteins.
What is fiber? Macromolecule of life? How does it prevent hard stools (while drinking enough water)? Hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Fiber or cellulose is a polysaccharide. It is hydrophilic. Fiber soaks up water as it passes through your system.
Active transport vs Passive transport? What do they have in common? How are they different?
Active transport- movement of a molecule to a higher concentration gradient across a cell membrane. requires energy.
Passive- movement without the need for energy. moves down concentration gradient.
Both use channels to move ions across the cell membrane by moving their concentration gradient
lines the thoracic cavity
cover the heart
lines the pericardial cavity
covers the organs in the abdomino pelvic cavity
lines the abdominal pelvic
the plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts is called the
heartburn is most often felt in the
homeostatic imbalance occurs when a
person sweats as a result of being hot
select the option that shows increasing complexity levels
cellular, tissue, organ, organ system
the process of maintaining a relatively stable internal condition is called
the cranial cavity is housed in
the dorsal body cavity
the opposite od superior is
which choice below is NOT one of the 3 components of homeostatic control systems?
The respiratory system contains the
trachea, bronchi, and lungs
the spleen is the largest organ in the
Which would be an example of positive feedback?
release of Oxycontin to increase the strength of labor contractions
which internal organ is NOT housed in the ventral body cavity?
Which of the following body systems acts as a fast-acting control system for the body?
Which of the following body systems functions to produce blood cells?
Which of the following is NOT a necessary human life function?
Which one of the following covers an organ?
Distal-the elbow/ the shoulder
lateral-the shoulder/ the breastbone
superior-the forehead/the chin
superficial- the skeleton/the muscle
proximal- the knee/the foot
inferior-the liver/the small intestine
the small intestine
The single most abundant element in the human body
which of the following are not included in axial part of the body?
The upper limbs
The midsaggittal plane
divides the body into two equal but not identical left and right parts along the midline
forms the external body coverings (hair, skin, nails), protects deeper tissues from injury. synthesizers vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure,ect.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
bones and joints. protects and supports body organs, provides framework the muscles use to cause movement, blood cells formed within the bones, bones store minerals
skeletal muscles. allows manipulation of the environment
lymphatic system/ immunity
red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes. picks up fluids leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. disposes of debris. houses white blood cells. attacks foreign substances within the body.
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung. keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.gaseous exchange occurs through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, eliminated as feces.
brain, nerves, spinal cord. fas ascting control system
pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, and ovary. secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
heart, blood vessels. transport blood, which carries oxygen carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ect.
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra. eliminates nitrogenous waste. regulates water, electrolytes, and acid base balance of the blood
male-prostate, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens.
female- mammary gland (in breasts), uterus, ovary, uterine tube, vagina.
Which of the following organs lies in the dorsal cavity?
the spinal cord
The body cavity which houses the lungs is known as the
the visceral serosa membrane
covers the outer surface of organs in a body cavity
the cavity between bones at the joint in known as the
stomach,small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, bladder, rectum,ovaries
stomach, liver, pancreas
Changing the _______ would change it into an atom of a different element/
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Chemical bonds are
energy relationships between the electrons of the reacting atoms
the outermost shell of an atoms is known as a
most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules
are polar and form hydrogen bonds
a can of cola consists mostly of sugar dissolved in water, with some carbon dioxide gas that makes it fizzy and makes the pH less that 7. In chemical terms, you could say that cola is an aqueous solution where the water is _________, sugar is a ______, and a carbon dioxide makes the solutions________.
the smallest particle of an element is a molecule
radioactive isotopes can be used in a medical study because
their location or quantity can be determined because of their radioactivity
if the atoms in a molecule share electrons equally, the molecule is said to be nonpolar
ice floats because water molecules in ice are more tightly packed than in liquid water
atoms in a water molecule are held together by the sharing of electrons
an atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an ion
make a sketch that shows how water molecules hydrogen bond with one another? Why do water molecule form hydrogen bonds? What unique properties of water result from water's tendency to form hydrogen bonds?
The bond between hydrogen and another element. Water molecules are attracted together with hydrogen bonds because the positive hydrogen connects with the negative oxygen.
Water molecules form hydrogen bonds because the positive charge of the hydrogen atoms attracts to the negative charge of the oxygen atoms in another molecule.
describe two ways in which the water in your body helps stabilize your body temperature.
absorbs and moves heat, sweats and cools by evaporation
explain how electrons can occupy each orbital shell around an atomic nucleus?
1st shell always only holds 2 electrons, the following shells hold up to 8 each
ionic and hydrogen bonds
polar and non-polar covalent bonds
hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions
ionic-chemical bonds, transfer electrons from on atom to another
hydrogen- between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom; weaker than ionic bonds
polar- not equally shared
hydrophobic- fear of water
hydrophilic- love of water
What does pH measure? Why do wee have a pH scale?
pH measures hydrogen ions. We use pH because each change in the pH scale represents a ten fold change
What numbers on the pH scale indicate an acid? A base? A neutral?
7 is neutral. anything under 7 is an acid and anything over 7 is a base
your body contains the greatest amount of which element?
Oxygen @ 65%
An acid is a substance that
donates hydrogen ions to solutions
How an atom behaves when it comes into contact wth other atoms is determined by its
Most of water's unique properties result from the fact that water molecules
are in constant motion
atoms of different isotopes
have different numbers of neutrons
an ion is formed when an atom
gains or loses and electron
which of the following holds atoms together in a molecule?
ionic bonds between atoms
an atom that normally has _____ electron in its outer shell would tend not to form chemical bonds with other atoms
a sodium atom has a mass number of 23. its atomic number is 11. how many electrons does it have (when it isnt an ion)?
which of the following are located in the nucleus of an atom?
protons and neutrons
which of the following results from sharing electrons?
which f the following contributes little to the mass of an atom?
Chemical reactions which release energy are?
all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table contain the same number of
electrons in the valance shell (outer most shell)
Which of the following statements concerning pH is incorrect?
pH is a scale to measure hydroxyl ions (OH-) in a fluid
release hydrogen ions
When isotopes are unstable they can spontaneously disintegrate through a process called
which of the following factors would speed up the rates of a chemical reaction?
high concentration of reagents
atoms of the same element pocess the same number of
This bond is produced by the sharing of electrons
Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
represented by the flow of ions across a membrance
energy that travels in waves
legs moving the pedal of a bicycle
when the bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work
Electrons prefer to occupy orbitals that have the lowest energy
Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water
The greater the hydrogen ion concentration, the lower the pH
Nonpolar substances interact very easily with water
An elements chemical reactivity is primarily determined by
how many electrons are in its outer shell (valence shell)
the simplest form of chemical substances
2 or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds
atoms that have gained or lost electrons
substance composed of 2 or more different elements the atoms of which are chemically combined
the basic unit of all elements
version of an atom with different number of neutrons
a chemical bond where 2 atoms share the electrons in the outer shell
nonpolar molecules aggregate together in water
a chemical bond formed by the transfer of 1 or more electrons from the outer most energy level of 1 atom to that of the other
uneven charge distribution allows a slightly positive area on 1 molecule to weakly attract an adjacent negatively charged area or another molecule
where in the tertirary structure of a water soluble protein would you most likely find an amino acid with a hydrophobic R group?
on the inside, away from water
Cows can derive nutrients from cellulose because
one of their stomachs contain prokaryotes that can hydrolyze the bondof cellulose
long chain like molecules made of many similar units are known as
the linear sequence of amino acids in a chain
alpha and beta regions fold upon each other
composed of a helices and b pleated sheets
2 or more proteins joined and working together
Lipids differ from other macrmolecules in that they
are not true polymers
have double bonds in their fatty acid chains
List 3 kinds of different Lipids and describe
Triglycerides-fatty acid, neutral fat, liquid state,efficient energy storing
Phospholipids- motified, 1 hydrophobic end, 1 hydorphilic end