A&P

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1

describe the anatomical position

"standing at attention" body erect, feet slightly apart but with palms facing out and thumbs away from the body

2

what is the importance of directional terms?

allows us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another, saves words and it less ambiguous

3

Define homeostatis

body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions, even though the outside world changes constantly

4

negative and positive feedback

Negative- changes the variable back to its original state

Positive- the output enhances the original stimulus.

Negative inhibit and Positive enhance

5

Explain the pH scale. which side indicates a base? Which side indicates an acid? Which accepts Hydrogen? Which releases Hydrogen?

pH scale is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. anything higher than 7 is a base and anything lower than 7 is an acid. 7 is neutral. A base accepts H+ and an Acid releases H+

6

Why does spraying a hypertonic salt solution into the nasal cavity relieve a swollen, stuffy nose?

My nose cells will lose water from them (since my nose is hypotonic to the solution) making my think snot/congestion thinner. The salt (hypertonic) solution will draw out excess water from the mucus membrane (osmosis) reducing space the inflamed area occupies.

7

What are the consequences of drinking excessive amounts of water (hypotonic to the body fluids)? Drinking salt water?

Water hypotonic means body hypertonic= more water going to the body, body loses salt causing brain and cell swelling.

If body is hypotonic and salt water is hypertonic= the body will pull water out of the cells causing dehydration.

8

DNA vs RNA

DNA- guidelines for living organisms, must follow to exist and remain functional.

RNA-helps carry out DNA's guidelines. A copy of DNA

9

What do enzymes do? How? Which macromolecule of life do they belong to?

Enzymes speed up/ increase chemical reactions. they breakdown larger molecules. Proteins.

10

What is fiber? Macromolecule of life? How does it prevent hard stools (while drinking enough water)? Hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

Fiber or cellulose is a polysaccharide. It is hydrophilic. Fiber soaks up water as it passes through your system.

11

Active transport vs Passive transport? What do they have in common? How are they different?

Active transport- movement of a molecule to a higher concentration gradient across a cell membrane. requires energy.

Passive- movement without the need for energy. moves down concentration gradient.

Both use channels to move ions across the cell membrane by moving their concentration gradient

12

Parietal Pericardium

lines the thoracic cavity

13

Visceral Pericardium

cover the heart

14

Parietal Pleura

lines the pericardial cavity

15

Visceral Peritoneum

covers the organs in the abdomino pelvic cavity

16

Parietal Peritoneum

lines the abdominal pelvic

17

the plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts is called the

frontal plane

18

heartburn is most often felt in the

epigastric region

19

homeostatic imbalance occurs when a

person sweats as a result of being hot

20

select the option that shows increasing complexity levels

cellular, tissue, organ, organ system

21

the process of maintaining a relatively stable internal condition is called

homeostasis

22

the cranial cavity is housed in

the dorsal body cavity

23

the opposite od superior is

inferior

24

which choice below is NOT one of the 3 components of homeostatic control systems?

stimulus

25

The respiratory system contains the

trachea, bronchi, and lungs

26

the spleen is the largest organ in the

lymphatic system

27

Which would be an example of positive feedback?

release of Oxycontin to increase the strength of labor contractions

28

which internal organ is NOT housed in the ventral body cavity?

Spinal cord

29

Which of the following body systems acts as a fast-acting control system for the body?

Nervous

30

Which of the following body systems functions to produce blood cells?

Circulatroy

31

Which of the following is NOT a necessary human life function?

Intelligence

32

Which one of the following covers an organ?

Visceral Pericardium

33

Distal-the elbow/ the shoulder

the elbow

34

lateral-the shoulder/ the breastbone

the shoulder

35

superior-the forehead/the chin

the forehead

36

superficial- the skeleton/the muscle

the muscle

37

proximal- the knee/the foot

the knee

38

inferior-the liver/the small intestine

the small intestine

39

The single most abundant element in the human body

oxygen

40

which of the following are not included in axial part of the body?

The upper limbs

41

The midsaggittal plane

divides the body into two equal but not identical left and right parts along the midline

42

integumentary system

forms the external body coverings (hair, skin, nails), protects deeper tissues from injury. synthesizers vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure,ect.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.

43

Skeletal System

bones and joints. protects and supports body organs, provides framework the muscles use to cause movement, blood cells formed within the bones, bones store minerals

44

muscular system

skeletal muscles. allows manipulation of the environment

45

lymphatic system/ immunity

red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes. picks up fluids leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. disposes of debris. houses white blood cells. attacks foreign substances within the body.

46

respiratory system

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung. keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.gaseous exchange occurs through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.

47

digestive system

oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, eliminated as feces.

48

Nervous system

brain, nerves, spinal cord. fas ascting control system

49

endocrine system

pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, and ovary. secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells

50

cardiovascular system

heart, blood vessels. transport blood, which carries oxygen carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ect.

51

urinary system

kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra. eliminates nitrogenous waste. regulates water, electrolytes, and acid base balance of the blood

52

reproductive system

male-prostate, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens.

female- mammary gland (in breasts), uterus, ovary, uterine tube, vagina.

offspring

53

Which of the following organs lies in the dorsal cavity?

the spinal cord

54

The body cavity which houses the lungs is known as the

pleural cavity

55

the visceral serosa membrane

covers the outer surface of organs in a body cavity

56

the cavity between bones at the joint in known as the

synovial cavity

57

stomach,small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, bladder, rectum,ovaries

abdominopelvic cavity

58

brain

cranial cavity

59

spinal cord,

spinal/vertebral cavity

60

heart, lungs

thoracic cavity

61

epigastric

stomach, liver, pancreas

62

Changing the _______ would change it into an atom of a different element/

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

63

Chemical bonds are

energy relationships between the electrons of the reacting atoms

64

the outermost shell of an atoms is known as a

valance shell

65

most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules

are polar and form hydrogen bonds

66

a can of cola consists mostly of sugar dissolved in water, with some carbon dioxide gas that makes it fizzy and makes the pH less that 7. In chemical terms, you could say that cola is an aqueous solution where the water is _________, sugar is a ______, and a carbon dioxide makes the solutions________.

solvent...solute...acidic

67

the smallest particle of an element is a molecule

False

68

radioactive isotopes can be used in a medical study because

their location or quantity can be determined because of their radioactivity

69

if the atoms in a molecule share electrons equally, the molecule is said to be nonpolar

true

70

ice floats because water molecules in ice are more tightly packed than in liquid water

False

71

atoms in a water molecule are held together by the sharing of electrons

true

72

an atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an ion

true

73

make a sketch that shows how water molecules hydrogen bond with one another? Why do water molecule form hydrogen bonds? What unique properties of water result from water's tendency to form hydrogen bonds?

H-O-H

The bond between hydrogen and another element. Water molecules are attracted together with hydrogen bonds because the positive hydrogen connects with the negative oxygen.

Water molecules form hydrogen bonds because the positive charge of the hydrogen atoms attracts to the negative charge of the oxygen atoms in another molecule.

74

describe two ways in which the water in your body helps stabilize your body temperature.

absorbs and moves heat, sweats and cools by evaporation

75

explain how electrons can occupy each orbital shell around an atomic nucleus?

1st shell always only holds 2 electrons, the following shells hold up to 8 each

76

Distinguish between:

ionic and hydrogen bonds

polar and non-polar covalent bonds

hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions

ionic-chemical bonds, transfer electrons from on atom to another

hydrogen- between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom; weaker than ionic bonds

polar- not equally shared

Non-polar-equally shared

hydrophobic- fear of water

hydrophilic- love of water

77

What does pH measure? Why do wee have a pH scale?

pH measures hydrogen ions. We use pH because each change in the pH scale represents a ten fold change

78

What numbers on the pH scale indicate an acid? A base? A neutral?

7 is neutral. anything under 7 is an acid and anything over 7 is a base

79

your body contains the greatest amount of which element?

Oxygen @ 65%

80

Proton

neutral charge

81

Electron

Negative charge

82

Neutron

Positive Charge

83

An acid is a substance that

donates hydrogen ions to solutions

84

How an atom behaves when it comes into contact wth other atoms is determined by its

electrons

85

Most of water's unique properties result from the fact that water molecules

are in constant motion

86

atoms of different isotopes

have different numbers of neutrons

87

an ion is formed when an atom

gains or loses and electron

88

which of the following holds atoms together in a molecule?

ionic bonds between atoms

89

an atom that normally has _____ electron in its outer shell would tend not to form chemical bonds with other atoms

8

90

a sodium atom has a mass number of 23. its atomic number is 11. how many electrons does it have (when it isnt an ion)?

11

91

which of the following are located in the nucleus of an atom?

protons and neutrons

92

which of the following results from sharing electrons?

covalent bonds

ionic bonds

hydrogen bonds

93

which f the following contributes little to the mass of an atom?

electrons

94

Chemical reactions which release energy are?

exergonic

95

all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table contain the same number of

electrons in the valance shell (outer most shell)

96

Which of the following statements concerning pH is incorrect?

pH is a scale to measure hydroxyl ions (OH-) in a fluid

97

A buffer

release hydrogen ions

98

When isotopes are unstable they can spontaneously disintegrate through a process called

radioactive decay

99

which of the following factors would speed up the rates of a chemical reaction?

high concentration of reagents

100

atoms of the same element pocess the same number of

protons

101

This bond is produced by the sharing of electrons

covalent

102

Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means

True

103

Electrical energy

represented by the flow of ions across a membrance

104

Radiant energy

energy that travels in waves

105

Mechanical energy

legs moving the pedal of a bicycle

106

Chemical energy

when the bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work

107

Electrons prefer to occupy orbitals that have the lowest energy

False

108

Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water

True

109

The greater the hydrogen ion concentration, the lower the pH

True

110

Nonpolar substances interact very easily with water

True

111

An elements chemical reactivity is primarily determined by

how many electrons are in its outer shell (valence shell)

112

Elements

the simplest form of chemical substances

113

Molecules

2 or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds

114

ions

atoms that have gained or lost electrons

115

compounds

substance composed of 2 or more different elements the atoms of which are chemically combined

116

atoms

the basic unit of all elements

117

isotopes

version of an atom with different number of neutrons

118

covalent bonds

a chemical bond where 2 atoms share the electrons in the outer shell

119

hydrophobic interactions

nonpolar molecules aggregate together in water

120

ionic bond

a chemical bond formed by the transfer of 1 or more electrons from the outer most energy level of 1 atom to that of the other

121

hydrogen bonds

uneven charge distribution allows a slightly positive area on 1 molecule to weakly attract an adjacent negatively charged area or another molecule

122

where in the tertirary structure of a water soluble protein would you most likely find an amino acid with a hydrophobic R group?

on the inside, away from water

123

Cows can derive nutrients from cellulose because

one of their stomachs contain prokaryotes that can hydrolyze the bondof cellulose

124

long chain like molecules made of many similar units are known as

polymers

125

primary structure

the linear sequence of amino acids in a chain

126

secondary structure

alpha and beta regions fold upon each other

127

Tertiary Structure

composed of a helices and b pleated sheets

128

Quaternary Structures

2 or more proteins joined and working together

129

Lipids differ from other macrmolecules in that they

are not true polymers

130

Unsaturated fats

have double bonds in their fatty acid chains

131

List 3 kinds of different Lipids and describe

Triglycerides-fatty acid, neutral fat, liquid state,efficient energy storing

Phospholipids- motified, 1 hydrophobic end, 1 hydorphilic end

Steroids- hydrohobic