Microbiology an Introduction: Microbiology Flashcards


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1

is the study of microscopic organisms – a largely unseen world

Microbiology

2

are organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

Microorganisms

3

Microbes in Our Lives ,few are

pathogenic (disease-causing

4

Microbes in Our Lives, they Decompose

organic waste

5

Microbes in Our Lives, are producers in the ecosystem by

Are producers in the ecosystem by

6

Microbes in Our Lives

photosynthesis

7

Microbes in Our Lives,produce industrial chemicals such as

ethanol and acetone

8

Microbes in Our Lives, produce fermented foods such as

vinegar, cheese, and bread

9

Microbes in Our Lives, produce products used in manufacturing

e.g., cellulase) and treatment (e.g., insulin)

10

There (3) classification of Microorganisms are

–Bacteria

–Archaea

–Eukarya

  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals
11

Ancestors of______were the first life on Earth

bacteria

12

Oldest known fossils are of

stromatolites

13

stromatolites are how old

–3.5 billion years old

14

The first microbes, however, were only directly observed in

1673

15

Organism Nomenclature was established by

Carolus Linnaeus (1735)

16

Each organism has unique _________species name.

two part genus

17

Organism Nomenclature is usually written in

  • in italics or underlined
  • genus with capital first letter
  • species/specific epithet all lowercase
18

After first use in documents, you can

  • abbreviate genus: example:E. coli
19

Name often describes organism

  • shape,
  • habitat,
  • name of discoverer, etc.
20

1673-1723: Anton van Leeuwenhoek described live

animalcules

21

1665: Robert Hooke reported that living things were composed of

little boxes, or cells

22

1858: Rudolf Virchow said cells arise from

preexisting cells

23

Cell theory: All living things are composed of

cells and come from preexisting cells

24

Spontaneous generation: The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving

matter; a “vital force” forms life

25

Biogenesis: The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from

preexisting life

26

Pasteurization is the application of a

high heat for a short time

27

1876: Robert Koch proved that a bacterium causes

anthrax

28

Paul Erlich speculated about a

magic bullet” that could destroy a pathogen without harming the host

29

Treatment with chemicals is

chemotherapy

30

Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious disease can be __________or antibiotics.

synthetic drugs

31

_____________are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes.

Antibiotics

32

1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the_______.

first antibiotic

33

Fleming observed that_______fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus

Penicillium

34

_______Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced

1940s

35

_______a new technique for biotechnology, enables bacteria and fungi to produce a variety of proteins including vaccines and enzymes

Recombinant DNA technology

36

___________infections are fatal in many insects but harmless to other animals, including humans, and to plants

Bacillus thuringiensis

37

The signs of interaction between atoms and molecules is called

Chemistry

38

Atoms are listed by their__________.

Atomic number

39

The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is the approximate_________.

Atomic weight

40

There are___________ naturally occurring elements.

92

41

___________Atoms with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.

Isotopes

42

In an Adam electrons are arranged in__________.

Electron Shells

43

Electron shells are region corresponding to different______________.

Energy levels

44

Time it takes for one half of the atom in sample to decay

Half-life

45

Atoms are mostly “empty” space – filled in by a cloud of

electrons

46

Valence electrons are located in the

outermost shell of an atom

47

Atoms with__________ shells can share or transfer valence electrons with certain other atoms

incomplete valence

48

These interactions usually result in atoms staying close together, held by attractions called

chemical bonds

49

__________are groups of atoms held together in a stable association

Molecules

50

______are molecules containing more than one type of element

Compound

51

A ________ has characteristics different than those of its elements

compound

52

Which bonds are stronger______ and _______.

Ionic and Covalent

53

Which bond is weaker _____ and ______.

Hydrogen bond and Van der Waals.

54

Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called_____.

ionic compounds, or salts

55

________form when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Covalent bonds

56
  • In a ______________the atoms share the electron.

nonpolar covalent bond,

57

_________is an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond

Electronegativity

58

In a, _______one atom is more electronegative,

polar covalent bond

59

______are attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of these charges

Van der Waals interactions

60

involve the making or breaking of bonds between atoms

Chemical reactions

61

A change in ________occurs during a chemical reaction.

chemical energy

62

____________reactions absorb energy,

Endergonic

63

_________reactions release energy

Exergonic

64

Occur when atoms, ions, or molecules combine
to form new, larger molecules.

Synthesis Reactions

65

is the synthesis of molecules in a cell

Anabolism

66

Occur when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms

Decomposition Reactions

67

is the decomposition reactions in a cell

Catabolism

68
  • Are part synthesis and part decomposition

Exchange Reactions

69
card image

What type of reaction?

Synthesis Reactions

70
card image

What type of reaction?

Decomposition Reactions

71
card image

What type of reaction?

Exchange Reactions

72
  • Can readily go in either direction
  • Each direction may need special conditions

Reversible Reactions

73
card image

What type of reaction?

Reversible reaction

74

In a ,_____ one atom is more electronegative, and the atoms do not share the electron equally

polar covalent bond

75

_____is an excellent solvent

water

76

Substance that resists changes in pH

Act by

–Releasing hydrogen ions when a base is added

–Absorbing hydrogen ions when acid is added

Overall effect of keeping [H+] relatively constant

Buffers

77

Most _______ consist of a pair of molecules, one an acid and one a base

biological buffer

78

Life molecules are mostly made up of_____

carbon