Anatomy Final-CH23 Flashcards


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1

How would you classify chewing food?

mechanical breakdown

2

What are the means of mechanically breaking down food?

churning

mastication

segmentation

3

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

digestion

4

Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?

mucosa

5

Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?

muscularis externa

6

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains not only glands and blood vessels but also a nerve plexus that helps regulate digestive activity

submucosa

7

The __________ circulation drains all of the organs of the digestive system.

hepatic portal

8

Which are the functions of saliva?

moistens food and helps compact it into a bolus.

dissolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted.

cleanses the mouth.

9

Which of the following inhibits salivation?

being stressed or frightened

10

The deciduous dentition consists of __________ teeth.

20

11

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?

The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

12

Which are the characteristic of the stomach?

The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.

The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.

The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.

13

In the __________ phase of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.

intestinal

14

__________ can result if food passes too slowly through the large intestine.

constipation

15

In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori , the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ______.

mucous cells

16

What role of the stomach is essential to life?

producing intrinsic factor

17

Chief cells produce

pepsinogen

18

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

19

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

parietal cells

20

What stomach secretion is needed to produce mature erythrocytes?

intrinsic factor

21

All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion and mechanical breakdown from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.

true

22

Which cells in the small intestine's mucosa secrete mucus?

goblet cells

23

Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?

hepatic portal vein

24

Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?

enteropeptidase

25

What triggers the release of secretin from the small intestine?

the presence of acidic, fatty chyme in the small intestine

26

The __________ is the first segment of the small intestine.

duodenum

27

Carbohydrates are digested into __________.

monosaccharides

28

True facts about Bile:

Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.

Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.

Bile functions to emulsify fats.

False:

Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

29

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

30

The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.

true

31

Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine.

true

32

Which of the following propels food residue over large areas of the colon three to four times a day?

mass movement

33

Which of the following is the primary physiological function of the large intestine?

water absorption and feces elimination

34

The pancreas secretes __________.

procarboxypeptidase

35

The formation of diverticula involves, most significantly, the ______.

weakening of the colon's submucosa

36

An effective way to medically treat diarrhea would be to use a drug that ______.

inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus

37

Most absorption of nutrients occurs in the __________.

jejunum

38

One of the direct consequences of lactose intolerance is ______.

increased osmotic pressure of the large intestine contents

39

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

amylase

40

How are fats absorbed into the lymph?

in the form of chylomicrons