A&P 2 Respiratory System Flashcards


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1
  1. Name the specific cartilages in the larynx that correspond to the following descriptions:
    1. forms the Adam’s apple?
    2. a “lid” for the larynx?
    3. vocal cord attachment?
  1. Thyroid
  2. epiglottis
  3. arytenoid
2

What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?

Prevents its collapse during pressure changes occurring during breathing.

3

The glottis is the opening to the?

The glottis is the opening to the larynx that is continued caudally by the trachea.

4

Breathing air through the nose provides multiple functions. What function would be most impacted while breathing dry air?

humidifying the air

5

Air moves into the lungs because the gas pressure in the lungs is ……..than outside pressure?

lower than the outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts. Boyle's law

6

Occasionally food or liquids will “go down the wrong pipe,” initiating a cough reflex. Which structural barrier has been breached if this happens?

epiglottis

7

Men tend to have deeper voices than women because their vocal cords _______?

are longer and thicker

8

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the?

upper respiratory tract.

9

As the bronchial tree terminates in bronchioles, the principal material comprising their walls is smooth muscle. What functional purpose does this smooth muscle provide?

The presence of smooth muscle allows the walls of the bronchioles to constrict and provides control over air flow.

10

Dalton's law states that in a mixture of gases like air, the total pressure is the?

in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.

11

The function of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity is/are?

warm air, moisten the air, trap small particles entering the nasal cavity

12

The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the?

tidal volume

13

The pressure in the alveoli is known as __________?

Intrapulmonary

14

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as?

converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in plasma.

15

Air moves into the lungs during inspiration due to the force of __________?

atmospheric pressure.

16

Blood CO2 levels and blood pH are related. When blood CO2 levels increase, does the

pH increase or decrease? Explain why?

Decrease because CO2 combines with H20 to produce carbonicc acid (H2CO3) which dissociates and liberates a H ion

High CO2 = High H+ = Low pH (Acidic)

Low CO2 = Low H+ = High pH (Basic)

17

Air is forced out of the lungs during normal expiration due to _________?

elastic recoil of tissues

18

Where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?

  1. Medulla oblongata
  2. Pons
19

Boyle’s law explains that _________?

the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume.

20

During an asthma attack, bronchioles become severely _______. Taking epinephrine causes them to _______?

constricted; dilate

21

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the?

pharynx

22

Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs because premature infants lack the ability to produce _______, which _______?

surfactant... lowers surface tension

23

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are which respiratory structure?

alveoli

24

Even the most forceful exhalation leaves air in the lungs; this is called the ______ and is needed to _______?

Residual volume; keep alveoli patent

25

Air passing from the pharynx to the trachea must pass through the?

Larynx

26

The process of internal respiration involves?

Gas exchange between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the tissue fluid of the body

27

Why is the rate of CO2 exchange roughly equivalent to that of O2 despite its less steep pressure gradient?

CO2 is more soluble in water than is O2

28

The function of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity is/are?

warm air, moisten the air, trap small particles entering the nasal cavity

29

The function of the nasal conchae is to……..?

enhance the air turbulance in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.

30

Red blood cells contain the enzyme _____, which catalyzes the formation of carbonic

acid?

carbonic anhydrase

31

________ is the most potent chemical influencing respiration?

CO2

32

the opening to the larynx is?

Glottis

33

. Air passing from the pharynx to the trachea must pass through the?

Larynx

34

The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes?

  • Right Lung 3
    • superior, middle, and inferior
  • Left Lung 2
    • superior and inferior
35

This structure prevents food from entering the airway is called?

Epiglottis

36

The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the?

TRACHEA

37

The membrane that adheres to the outer surface of the lungs is the?

Visceral Pleura

38

Which bronchial branch delivers air to the lobes of the lungs?

Secondary Bronchi

39

An increase in the volume of a container filled with air would have what effect on the

pressure of the container?

Decrease

40

The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the….?

oropharynx

41

Surfactant decreases the __________ in the alveoli?

surface tension

42

The volume of air remains in the lungs after maximal expiration is _______ Volume?

residual volume

43

When the diaphragm is relaxed air______ of the lung and when diaphragm is contracted

air _______the lung?

  1. exits
  2. enters
44

Which pressure is responsible for keeping the lungs from collapsing?

Transpulmonary pressure

45

The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a gas mixture is the __________ of that gas?

partial pressure

46

The majority of carbon dioxide is transported as_______?

Bicarbonate

47

Hemoglobin has the highest affinity for which of the following: O2; CO2; CO?

CO

48

The chloride shift refers to?

chloride ions moving into or out of the red blood cell

49

A decrease in pH will have what effect on the respiration rate?

Increase

50

Do the following factors generally increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?

  1. increase in blood CO2?
  2. decrease in blood O2 ?
  3. increase in blood pH?
  1. increase
  2. increase
  3. decrease
51

Why are the cartilages that reinforce the trachea C-shaped?

so that food can pass down the esophagus

52

Boyle's law states that gas volume is indirectly proportional to……?

its pressure

53

The following is a list of some of the structures of the respiratory tree. Place them in

order in which air passes through these structures:

1. Secondary bronchi

2. Bronchioles

3. Alveolar ducts

4. Primary bronchi

5. Respiratory bronchioles

6. Alveoli

7. Terminal bronchioles

4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6

  1. Primary Bronchi
  2. Secondary Bronchi
  3. Bronchioles
  4. Terminal Bronchioles
  5. Respiratory bronchioles
  6. Alveolar ducts
  7. Alveoli
54

The largest cartilage of the larynx is the ________ cartilage?

thyroid

55

What path does air take when flowing from the glottis to the respiratory membrane?

larynx> trachea> bronchi> bronchioles>alveolar duct> alveolar sac> respiratory membrane

56

What role do the nasal conchae play in the respiratory system?

Nasal conchae warm, humidify, filter and direct air in the nasal passages. The conchae, which are also called turbinates, consist of bones, tissues and vessels

57

. Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is bound to?

heme groups in hemoglobin

58

If surfactant is not produced, alveoli _____ due to ______.?

the alveoli would collapse as a result of surface tension in the thin layer of water that moistens the alveolar surfaces.

59

In pneumonia, fluid accumulates in the alveoli of the lungs and bronchioles constrict.

What effect does pneumonia have on vital capacity?

Decrease in vital capacity

60

What is the functional relationship between hemoglobin and pH?

As blood nears the lungs, the carbon dioxide concentration decreases, causing an increase in pH. This increase in pH increases hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen through the Bohr effect, causing hemoglobin to pick up oxygen entering your blood from your lungs so it can transport it to your tissues.

61

Surfactant helps prevent the alveoli from?

Collapsing by interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

62

Which law states that in a mixture of gases like air, the total pressure is the sum of the

individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture?

Dalton's Law

63

Why cartilaginous rings of trachea are incomplete posteriorly (i.e. why are they “C” shape structres)?

allow the trachea to collapse slightly so that food can pass down the esophagus

64

Diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood is external or internal

respiration?

External respiration

65

The first event in expiration is?

the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax

66

Activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins the inspiratory

process. What effect does contraction of these muscles have on thoracic volume, and how

is this accomplished?

increase in thoracic volume. The diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior/inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior and posterior dimensions

67

Which law indicates that gas volume is indirectly proportional to pressure?

Boyle's law

68

What is the function of the pleural membranes?

produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated.

69

What is internal respiration?

gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues

70

. The function of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity is/are?

warm air, moisten the air, trap small particles entering the nasal cavity

71

Name three functions of the nasal cavity mucosa?

warms, moisten; filter the air that passes through the nasal cavity

72

. The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial

fluids is?

internal respiration.

73

Trace a molecule of oxygen from the nostrils to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs?

NOSTRILS -> NASAL CAVITY -> PHARYNX -> LARYNX -> TRACHEA -? PRIMARY BRONCHUS -> SECONDARY BRONCHI -> TERTIARY BRONCHI -> BRONCHIOLE -> RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE -> ALVEOLAR DUCT ->ALVEOLAR SAC -> ALVEOLAR/CAPILLARY WALLS -> PULMONARY BLOOD

74

What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space?. Why?

ALL RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS (CONDUCTING ZONE STRUCTURES), BESIDES RESPIRATORY ZONE STRUCTURES, FROM NASAL CAVITY TO TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.

WHY = THEY HAVE NO EXCHANGE FUNCTION

alveolar

respiratory ducts

75

External respiration involves the diffusion of gases between the …….. and the circulating

blood?

alveoli

76

The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal

breathing movements. What would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity,

as with a puncture wound?

Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.

77

. Write the respiratory volume term and the normal value that is described by the following

statements, using the following key: inspiratory reserve, residual volume, tidal volume,

expiratory reserve

  1. Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration?
  2. Volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration?
  3. Volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration?
  4. Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration?
  1. residual volume/ 1200 ml
  2. expiratory reserve volume/ 1000-1200 ml
  3. tidal volume/ 500 ml
  4. inspiratory reserve volume/ 2100-3100 ml
78

The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as …..law?

Boyles law

79

When measuring vital capacity of the lung, would vital capacity measurement differ if

you performed the test while standing? While siting? Explain?

Yes, both, when lying down or sitting the abdominal organs press against the diaphragm, making it harder for the diaphragm to move inferiorly

80

What is the ultimate function of breathing?

to deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment.

81

. Where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?

  1. Medulla oblongata
  2. Pons
82

Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in blood pressure located?

Aortic arch, carotid sinus

83

The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the?

atmospheric pressure

84

What is the primary factor that initiates breathing in a newborn infant?

increase levels of CO2 in the blood which is monitored by chemorecpters

(There isnt a chemorecpter for O2 Levels)

85

If surfactant is not produced, alveoli _____ due to ______.?

the alveoli would collapse as a result of increase surface tension in the thin layer of water that moistens the alveolar surfaces.

86

Explain how the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system of the blood operates?

to control body pH. The lungs expel CO2, which raises pH, because hydrogen ions have to be consumed with bicarbonate ions in order to produce CO2

87

The hard palate separates the ______ cavity and the _____ cavity

Anterior part of oral cavity from nasal cavity

88

What role does exhalation of carbon dioxide play in maintaining relatively constant blood

pH?.

CO2 leaves blood, preventing an accumulation of carbonic acid

89

Do the following factors generally increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?

  1. increase in blood CO2?
  2. decrease in blood O2 ?
  3. increase in blood pH?
  1. increase
  2. increase
  3. decrease
  4. increase
  5. CO2
90
  1. Define the following terms:
    1. external respiration?
    2. internal respiration?
    3. cellular respiration?
  1. the diffusion of gases across the gas exchange membrane into blood from the external environment
  2. diffusion of gases across the gas exchange membrane from blood into tissues
  3. is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
91

The vocal folds are located in the?

larynx

92

List the events of respiration?

  1. Pulmonary ventilation
  2. External respiration
  3. Respiratory gas transport
  4. internal respiration
93

Use the following key terms to match them with appropriate description bellow: Key:

Palate (hard and soft), esophagus, trachea, larynx, epiglottis, parietal pleura, conchae ,

alveolus

  1. connects the larynx to the primary bronchi?
  2. covers the glottis during swallowing of food?
  3. food passageway posterior to the trachea?
  4. site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood?
  5. contains the vocal cords?
  6. pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax?
  7. increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity?
  8. separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity?
  1. Trachea
  2. Epiglottis
  3. Esophagus
  4. Alveolus
  5. larynx
  6. Parital pleura
  7. Conchae
  8. Palate (hard and soft)
94

. Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a

rise in?

decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH

95

Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because?

obstruct the airway

96
card image

What is the function of the structures labeled "12"(Use the diagram bellow)?

Conchae

Function: Cause air turbulence in order to warm air

97
card image

. Identify the structure labeled "7." ?

Pharynx

98
card image

What is the function of the structure labeled "8"?

Epiglottis

Function: To direct food

99

Which structure vibrates to produce sound?

Larynx

100
card image

Name the structures

card image
  1. Right Superior Lobe
  2. Primary Bronchi
  3. Left Superior Lobe
  4. Secondary Bronchi
  5. Tertiary Bronchi
  6. Left Inferior Lobe
  7. Right Middle Lobe
  8. Right Inferior Lobe
  9. Terminal Bronchi
  10. Respritory Bronchi
  11. Alveolus duct
  12. Alveolus
  13. Alveolus duct
  14. Alveolus sac