A&P 2 Heart

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1

Complete the following statement explaining the scheme of circulation of blood in the human body.
Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the____________ , through the_________ valve to the
pulmonary trunk, to the ______________ to the capillary beds of the lungs, to the _____________ to the
____________ of the heart, through the __________ valve to the_____________ through
the___________ valve to the______________ , to the systemic arteries, to the _____________ of the
tissues, to the systemic veins, to the ___________________ ________________and ___________
entering the right atrium of the heart

  • Right Ventricle
  • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
  • Right/Left Pulmonary Artery
  • Pulmonary Vein
  • Left Atrium
  • Bicuspid Valve
  • Left Ventricle
  • Aortic Semilunar Valve
  • Aorta
  • Capillary Beds
  • Superior/Inferior Vena Cava
  • Coronary Sinus
2

What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac?

Allows Fluid for heart to beat

3

The first heart sound is heard when the ______ valves close?

AV close

4

List the correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses from SA node to Purkinje fibers?

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

5

What is the function of the valves found in the heart?

To prevent back flow

6

What is the role of the chordae tendineae?

To hold the flaps of the valves so they dont swing back

7

The pulmonary circuit sends ____________ blood to the lungs?

oxygen poor blood

8

Deoxygenated blood is pumped by the right ventricle to lung via ___________ circuit?

Pulmonary circuit

9

The heart wall is composed of ________ layers of tissue?

Three layers

10

Name the layers of heart wall?

  1. Epicaridum
  2. Myocardium
  3. Endocardium
11

If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?

Systemic circulation

12

Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death?

The coronary artery supplies blood to the heart

13

Describe the unique anatomical features of cardiac muscle. What role does the unique structure of cardiac muscle play in its function?

It holds the myocytes together so that they do not pull apart when the heart contracts

14

When the ventricular walls contract, which heart valves close?

AV Valves

15

Even though cardiac muscle has an inherent ability to beat, the nodal system plays a critical role in heart physiology. What is that role?

Generate action potentials at a greater frequency than other cardiac muscle cells, they are the pacemaker of the heart. Therefore, it sets the heart rate.

16

The valve located between right atrium and right ventricle is the ….valve?

Tricuspid Valve

17

Define the following terms: tachycardia; bradycardia; fibrillation?

Tachycardia: Abnormally Rapid Heart rate.

Bradycardia: An abnormally Slow heart rate.

Fibrillation: A muscular Twitching.

18

The aortic and pulmonary valves opens when the ventricles_____?

Contract

19

Which would be more serious, atrial or ventricular fibrillation? Why?

  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • It is A life-threatening heart rhythm that results in a rapid, inadequate heartbeat therefore it can cause low blood pressure, loss of consciousness, or death.
20

Of the following layers of the heart wall, which consumes the most energy: Epicardium; Myocardium; Endocardium? Why?

Myocardium:

Because it provides a scaffolding for the heart chambers, assisting in contraction and relaxation of the cardiac walls so that blood can pass between the chambers

21

The right atrium receives blood directly from______________?

Inferior/Superior vena cava

22

What purpose does the coronary circuit serve?

it delivers 1/20 of the body's blood supply to the heart muscle itself.

23
  1. The following are various components of the conducting system of the heart. Use the key terms to correct the sequence in which an action potential would move through this system. Key: Purkinje fibers, AV bundle, AV node, SA node, bundle branches.

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

24
  1. A heart murmur would be detected when blood is heard flowing from the ________ to the __________ through the ___________?

Left Ventricle

Left Atrium

Bicuspid Valves

25
  1. The plateau portion of the action potential in contractile cardiac muscle cells is due to?

Calcium.

26
  1. An abnormally slow heart rate is termed?

Bradycardia

27
  1. The stimulus for the heart’s rhythmic contractions comes from _________?

Pacemaker

28

Aortic semilunar valve-permits one-way blood flow from the _________to the________?

  • Left Ventricle
  • Aorta
29

The function of an atrium is to ________?

Receive blood

30

In a normal heart, which of the following structures is responsible for setting the heart’s pace? Bicuspid valve is also called________valve?

  • Pacemaker
  • Mitral Valve
31

The pacemaker cells of the heart are located in the?

Top of Right Atrium

32

Depolarization of ventricles is represented by which waves in EKG (ECG)?

QRS complex

33

The “lub-dup” heart sounds are produced by?

-Lub: Atrioventricular Valves

-Dub: Semilunar Valves

34

The left and right pulmonary arteries carry blood to the?

Lungs

35

Abnormally high heart rate is termed?

Tachycardia

36

Mitral valve-permits one-way blood flow from the _________to the________?

  • Left Atrium
  • Left Ventricle
37

In terms of blood flow, why is it important that atrial diastole occurs just as ventricular systole begins?

when ventricular systole begins atrial diastole is important because the atrial needs to accept the new blood that comes in. Both can be contracted

38

The myocardium is primarily composed of ________ tissue?

Cardiac Muscle

39

Cardiac output is determined by________ and _________?

  • Heart Rate
  • Stroke Volume

(heart rate*stroke volume)

40

The heart is roughly the size of ________?

Your Fist

41

What is stroke volume?

Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle with each heartbeat

42

What is rate?

Beats per 1 min

43

Depolarization of the atria corresponds directly to the EKG's?

P wave

44

The inner lining of the heart is called?

Endocardium

45

The pain of angina pectoris comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the?

Heart

46

Your heart seems to “pound” after you hear a sudden, loud noise. This increased contractility is due to?

-Epinepherin

-Neuroepinepherin

47

In cardiac muscle, the depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of increased membrane permeability to?

increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

48

What is the nature of acetylcholine’s inhibitory effect on heart rate?

Acetylcholine causes opening of potassium channels in the SA node, thereby hyperpolarizing it.

49

Which of the following layers of the heart wall contracts and this contraction force blood out of the heart?

Myocardium: muscular contractions

50

Which of the following layers of the heart wall is a protective inner lining of the heart chambers and valves?

Endocardium

51

Why is high blood pressure damaging to the heart?

Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Arteries narrowed by coronary artery disease don't allow blood to flow freely through your arteries.

52

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents?

Ventricular Repolarization

53

Cardiac muscle tissue is found in which layer of the heart wall?

Myocaridum

54

Follow a drop of blood from the vena cava to the lungs and then back from the lungs to the heart and then from the heart to the cells and back to the heart. Use the following key:

  • Left Atrium
  • pulmonary vein
  • mitral (bicuspid) valve
  • right atrium
  • aorta, tricuspid valve
  • left ventricle, lungs
  • vena cava
  • aortic semilunar valve
  • right ventricle
  • pulmonary semilunar valve
  • pulmonary artery.

Vena Cava → RA → Tricuspid Valve → RV → Pulmonary Semilunar Valve → Pulmonary Trunk → Pulmonary Arteries → Lungs → Pulmonary Veins → LA → Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve → LV → Aortic Semilunar Valve → Aorta

55

Name the valve that is found between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve.

56

Blood is carried to the heart by which vessels? Arteries or Veins?

Veins

57

The heart is innervated by ________ nerves?

Somatic Motor Nerves

58

Blood is carried away from the heart by which vessels? Arteries or Veins?

Arteries

59

The ________ ventricle has a greater workload than the ________ventricle? Why?

  • Left
  • Right
  • Reason: Left Ventricle needs to pump blood a greater distance then Right Ventricle
60

In cardiac muscle, the plateau phase of the action potential is the result of?

Calcium Ions remaining open

61

All oxygenated blood returns to the heart via which vein?

Pulmonary Veins

62

Depolarization of atria is represented by which waves in EKG (ECK)?

P wave

63

Blood being pumped out of the left ventricle enters the….?

System circuit

64

Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the?

Right Atrium

65

Blood is prevented from flowing back into the left ventricle by the…?

Aortic Semi lunar Valve.

66

Which area of the heart is known as the pacemaker of the heart?

SA node

67

The right ventricle pumps blood to which organ?

Lungs

68

Atrial repolarization occurs during which period of time, seen on an EKG? Hint: remember that repolarization of atrium should occur at the same time as depolarization of ventricles

QRS Complex

69

Contractions of the papillary muscles prevent the _____valves from reversing into the atria?

Atroiventricular

70

The lub-dup heart sounds heard during auscultation of the heart are associated with……?

Closing of the valves.

Lub: AV Closing

Dub: SV Closing

71
  1. When all four heart valves are closed, it is termed as …………………contraction?

Isovolumetric Ventricular

72

The atrioventricular valve on the side of the heart that receives the superior vena cava is the ________ valve?

Tricuspid Valve

73

The amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute is called?

Cardiac Output

74

Abnormalities of heart valves can be detected more accurately by auscultation than by electrocardiography. Why is this so?

Extra heart sounds are produce and you can hear them with a stethoscope.

75
  1. Define ECG?

Electrocardiograpy: Device used to show hearts electrical activity

76

Draw an ECG wave form representing one heartbeat. Label the P, QRS, and T waves; the P-R interval; the S-T segment; and the Q–T interval?

card image
77

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the?

Cardiac Output

78

When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves ________?

Open

79

Describe what happens in the cardiac cycle in the following situations:

  1. immediately before the P wave?
  2. during the P wave?
  3. immediately after the P wave (P-R segment)?
  4. during the QRS wave?
  5. immediately after the QRS wave (S-T interval)?
  6. during the T wave?
  • DURING THE P WAVE: DEPOLARIZATION OF ATRIA
  • DURING THE T WAVE:REPOLARIZATION OF VENTRICLES
  • DURING THE QRS WAVE: DEPOLARIZATION OF VENTRICLES
  • IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE QRS WAVE (S-T INTERVAL): CONTRACTION OF VENTRICLES
80

Why does heart rate increase during running?

More oxygen is needed for muscles and organs. So the heart needs to pump more.

81

List the elements of the intrinsic conduction system in order, starting from the SA node?

  1. At what structure in the transmission sequence is the impulse temporarily delayed? Why?
  • Step 1: The S-A node creates an electrical signal
  • Step 2: The electrical signal follows the natural electrical pathways through both atria. The movement of electricity causes the atria to contract, pushing blood into the ventricles.
  • Step 3: The electrical signal reaches the A-V node. There, the signal pauses to give the ventricles time to fill with blood.
  • Step 4: The electrical signal spreads through the His-Purkinje system. The movement of electricity causes the ventricles to contract, pushing blood to your lungs and body.
82

Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations?

Pulmonary: Between heart and Lungs.

Systemic: Between Heart and Organs.

83

Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the?

QRS Complex

84

Use the key and match them to the correct descriptions provided below. Key: ventricles, coronary sinus , epicardium, atria, Mediastinum, myocardium

  1. location of the heart in the thorax?
  2. superior heart chambers?
  3. inferior heart chambers?
  4. visceral pericardium?
  5. equals cardiac muscle?
  6. actual “pumps” of the heart?
  7. drains blood into the right atrium?
  1. Mediastinum
  2. Atria
  3. Ventricles
  4. d
  5. Myocardium
  6. d
  7. d
85
card image

An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Use the key (1 to 24)and label the diagram bellow.

  1. Brachicephelic Artery
  2. Superior Vena Cava
  3. Right Pulmanary Artery
  4. Ascending Aorta
  5. Pulmonary Trunk
  6. Left Pulmonary Vein
  7. Right Atrium
  8. Right Coronary Artery
  9. Anterior Cardiac Vein
  10. Right Ventricle
  11. Inferior Vena Cava
  12. Left Common Carotid Artery
  13. Left Subclavian artery
  14. ligamentum arteriosum
  15. left pulmonary artery
  16. left pulmonary veins
  17. left atrium
  18. auricle
  19. circumflex artery
  20. Left coronary artery (in coronary sinus)
  21. left ventricle
  22. Great cardiac vein
  23. Anterior interventricular artery
  24. Apex