85 notecards = 22 pages (4 cards per page)
Complete the following statement explaining the scheme of circulation
of blood in the human body.
What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac?
Allows Fluid for heart to beat
The first heart sound is heard when the ______ valves close?
List the correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses from SA node to Purkinje fibers?
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
What is the function of the valves found in the heart?
To prevent back flow
What is the role of the chordae tendineae?
To hold the flaps of the valves so they dont swing back
The pulmonary circuit sends ____________ blood to the lungs?
oxygen poor blood
Deoxygenated blood is pumped by the right ventricle to lung via ___________ circuit?
The heart wall is composed of ________ layers of tissue?
Name the layers of heart wall?
If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?
Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death?
The coronary artery supplies blood to the heart
Describe the unique anatomical features of cardiac muscle. What role does the unique structure of cardiac muscle play in its function?
It holds the myocytes together so that they do not pull apart when the heart contracts
When the ventricular walls contract, which heart valves close?
Even though cardiac muscle has an inherent ability to beat, the nodal system plays a critical role in heart physiology. What is that role?
Generate action potentials at a greater frequency than other cardiac muscle cells, they are the pacemaker of the heart. Therefore, it sets the heart rate.
The valve located between right atrium and right ventricle is the ….valve?
Define the following terms: tachycardia; bradycardia; fibrillation?
Tachycardia: Abnormally Rapid Heart rate.
Bradycardia: An abnormally Slow heart rate.
Fibrillation: A muscular Twitching.
The aortic and pulmonary valves opens when the ventricles_____?
Which would be more serious, atrial or ventricular fibrillation? Why?
Of the following layers of the heart wall, which consumes the most energy: Epicardium; Myocardium; Endocardium? Why?
Because it provides a scaffolding for the heart chambers, assisting in contraction and relaxation of the cardiac walls so that blood can pass between the chambers
The right atrium receives blood directly from______________?
Inferior/Superior vena cava
What purpose does the coronary circuit serve?
it delivers 1/20 of the body's blood supply to the heart muscle itself.
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
Aortic semilunar valve-permits one-way blood flow from the _________to the________?
The function of an atrium is to ________?
In a normal heart, which of the following structures is responsible for setting the heart’s pace? Bicuspid valve is also called________valve?
The pacemaker cells of the heart are located in the?
Top of Right Atrium
Depolarization of ventricles is represented by which waves in EKG (ECG)?
The “lub-dup” heart sounds are produced by?
-Lub: Atrioventricular Valves
-Dub: Semilunar Valves
The left and right pulmonary arteries carry blood to the?
Abnormally high heart rate is termed?
Mitral valve-permits one-way blood flow from the _________to the________?
In terms of blood flow, why is it important that atrial diastole occurs just as ventricular systole begins?
when ventricular systole begins atrial diastole is important because the atrial needs to accept the new blood that comes in. Both can be contracted
The myocardium is primarily composed of ________ tissue?
Cardiac output is determined by________ and _________?
(heart rate*stroke volume)
The heart is roughly the size of ________?
What is stroke volume?
Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle with each heartbeat
What is rate?
Beats per 1 min
Depolarization of the atria corresponds directly to the EKG's?
The inner lining of the heart is called?
The pain of angina pectoris comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the?
Your heart seems to “pound” after you hear a sudden, loud noise. This increased contractility is due to?
In cardiac muscle, the depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of increased membrane permeability to?
increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.
What is the nature of acetylcholine’s inhibitory effect on heart rate?
Acetylcholine causes opening of potassium channels in the SA node, thereby hyperpolarizing it.
Which of the following layers of the heart wall contracts and this contraction force blood out of the heart?
Myocardium: muscular contractions
Which of the following layers of the heart wall is a protective inner lining of the heart chambers and valves?
Why is high blood pressure damaging to the heart?
Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Arteries narrowed by coronary artery disease don't allow blood to flow freely through your arteries.
The T wave on an ECG tracing represents?
Cardiac muscle tissue is found in which layer of the heart wall?
Follow a drop of blood from the vena cava to the lungs and then back from the lungs to the heart and then from the heart to the cells and back to the heart. Use the following key:
Vena Cava → RA → Tricuspid Valve → RV → Pulmonary Semilunar Valve → Pulmonary Trunk → Pulmonary Arteries → Lungs → Pulmonary Veins → LA → Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve → LV → Aortic Semilunar Valve → Aorta
Name the valve that is found between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve.
Blood is carried to the heart by which vessels? Arteries or Veins?
The heart is innervated by ________ nerves?
Somatic Motor Nerves
Blood is carried away from the heart by which vessels? Arteries or Veins?
The ________ ventricle has a greater workload than the ________ventricle? Why?
In cardiac muscle, the plateau phase of the action potential is the result of?
Calcium Ions remaining open
All oxygenated blood returns to the heart via which vein?
Depolarization of atria is represented by which waves in EKG (ECK)?
Blood being pumped out of the left ventricle enters the….?
Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the?
Blood is prevented from flowing back into the left ventricle by the…?
Aortic Semi lunar Valve.
Which area of the heart is known as the pacemaker of the heart?
The right ventricle pumps blood to which organ?
Atrial repolarization occurs during which period of time, seen on an EKG? Hint: remember that repolarization of atrium should occur at the same time as depolarization of ventricles
Contractions of the papillary muscles prevent the _____valves from reversing into the atria?
The lub-dup heart sounds heard during auscultation of the heart are associated with……?
Closing of the valves.
Lub: AV Closing
Dub: SV Closing
The atrioventricular valve on the side of the heart that receives the superior vena cava is the ________ valve?
The amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute is called?
Abnormalities of heart valves can be detected more accurately by auscultation than by electrocardiography. Why is this so?
Extra heart sounds are produce and you can hear them with a stethoscope.
Electrocardiograpy: Device used to show hearts electrical activity
Draw an ECG wave form representing one heartbeat. Label the P, QRS, and T waves; the P-R interval; the S-T segment; and the Q–T interval?
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the?
When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves ________?
Describe what happens in the cardiac cycle in the following situations:
Why does heart rate increase during running?
More oxygen is needed for muscles and organs. So the heart needs to pump more.
List the elements of the intrinsic conduction system in order, starting from the SA node?
Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations?
Pulmonary: Between heart and Lungs.
Systemic: Between Heart and Organs.
Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the?
Use the key and match them to the correct descriptions provided below. Key: ventricles, coronary sinus , epicardium, atria, Mediastinum, myocardium
An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Use the key (1 to 24)and label the diagram bellow.