A&P 2 Blood Vessels Flashcards


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1
  1. Why valves are present in veins but not in arteries?
  1. Arteries have strong pressure already and go with gravity while veins go against gravity and have low pressure.

2
  1. Name two events occurring within the body that aid in venous return?
  1. Skeletal Muscle contraction and valve opening and closing.

3
  1. The celiac artery provides blood to the?
  1. Liver, spleen and stomach

4
  1. Why are the walls of arteries proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?
  1. They have high pressure

5
  1. How could you tell by simple observation whether bleeding is arterial or venous?
  1. Arterial if blood squirts out
  2. If blood seeps out

6
  1. The blood pressure in the large systemic arteries is greatest during_______?
  1. During Ventricular systole pressure

7
  1. Define blood pressure?
  1. The pressure exerted by blood on the wall of blood vessel

8
  1. Interpret 145/85?
  1. Has high blood pressure
  2. Ventricular contraction is 145 and ventricular relaxation is 70

9
  1. When renin is released from the juxtaglomerular cells angiotensinogen is converted into ___?
  1. Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensin I
  2. Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II

10
  1. Define pulse pressure?
  1. The pressure wave that travels through arteries following left ventricular systole.

11
  1. How do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures? Why?
  1. Venous pressure is lower in pressure compared to arterial pressure.
  2. Reason: Veins are further away from pumping action of the heart.

12
  1. When venous pressure is too low, ____________ stimulate smooth muscles in the walls of veins to contract?
  1. Sympathetic reflexes

13
  1. What event causes the semilunar valves to open?
  1. Ventricular Contraction

14
  1. When are the AV valves closed?
  1. During ventricular systole

15
  1. The smallest arterial branch is called the?
  1. Arteriole

16

What event within the heart causes the AV valves to open?

  1. Ventricular Pressure
  2. When the ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure

17

Are both sets of valves closed during any part of the cycle? If so, when?

  1. yes, momentarily after atrial systole and ventricular systole

18
  1. Materials can move across capillary walls by what kind of transportation?
  1. Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (CHP)

19
  1. Define pulse pressure? Why is this measurement important?
  1. The pressure wave that travels through arteries following left ventricular systole.
  2. Systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure.
    1. It indicates the actual working pressure
    2. Amount of blood forced out of the heart during systole

20
  1. At what point in the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart highest?
  1. Ventricular (systole) Contraction

21
  1. When measuring patient’s Blood pressure what factors may influence BP?
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Gender
  • Smoking
  • Dieght

22

What might an abnormal increase in venous pressure indicate? Why?

  1. Decreased Cardiac output
  2. Increased Blood Volume
  3. Muscle Contraction
  4. Venous Constriction

23

In which position (sitting, reclining, or standing) is the blood pressure normally the highest: Standing; Sitting, or Reclining?

Standing

24
  1. In which position (sitting, reclining, or standing) is the blood pressure normally the lowest: Standing; Sitting, or Reclining?
  1. Standing

25
  1. What effect do the following have on blood pressure (Indicate increase or decrease by)?increased diameter of the arterioles?
    • increased blood viscosity
    • increased cardiac output
    • hemorrhage
    • arteriosclerosis
    • increased pulse rate
  1. increased diameter of the arterioles?
    1. Decreases
  2. increased blood viscosity?
    1. Increases
  3. increased cardiac output?
    1. Increases
  4. hemorrhage?
    1. Decreases
  5. arteriosclerosis?
    1. Increases
  6. increased pulse rate?
    1. Increases

26
  1. Materials can move across capillary walls by what kind of transportation?
  1. Osmosis and diffusion

27
  1. As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the resistance _____?

low

28
  1. Trace the pathway of oxygen gas molecules from an alveolus of the lung to the right atrium of the heart. Name all structures through which it passes. Identify the areas of gas exchange by making it bold or different color font?
  1. Alveolus->Pulmonary vein->Left Atrium->Bicuspid Valve->Left Ventricle->Aortic Semilunar Valve-> Aorta->Aortic Trunk->systemic Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries->Organs->Capillaries->Venules -> Veins->Inferior/Superior Vena Cava ->Right Atrium.

29
  1. Define the following terms: systole? diastole?
  1. Systole: Ventricle Contraction
  2. Diastole: Ventricle Relaxation

30
  1. Assume someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly. What pressure point would you compress: the thigh___ _____? the forearm ___ ____?, the thumb __ __?
  1. Thigh: Femoral
  2. Forearm: Brachial
  3. Thumb: Radial

31

If an individual’s heart rate is 80 beats/min, what is the length of the cardiac cycle?

75 sec

(80 beats/min)/60

32

Define pulse?

the pressure wave that travels through arteries following left ventricular systole.

33
  1. Identify the artery palpated at each of the pressure points listed: at the wrist_______; at the side of the neck ____; in front of the ear________?
  1. Wrist: Radial
  2. Side of Neck: Common Carotid
  3. Front of Ear: Temporal

34
  1. When you palpating the various pulse or pressure points, which appeared to have the greatest amplitude or tension (try this on yourself or a friend)? Why do you think this was so?
  1. The Carotid Artery
  2. Reason: Because its Closest to the Heart.

35
  1. Arterial systolic pressure is most closely associated with?
  1. Pulse
  2. Not to sure about this one.

36

Most arteries of the adult body carry oxygen-rich blood, and the veins carry oxygen-depleted, carbon dioxide–rich blood. How does this differ in the pulmonary arteries and veins?

  1. Pulmonary Arteries: Oxygen Poor to Lungs
  2. Pulmonary Veins: Oxygen Rich to Heart

37

How do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from the systemic arteries? What condition is indicated by this anatomical difference?

  • Arteries in the Pulmonary Circulation have thinner walls, they are more like Veins. This is because they have low pressure. While the arteries in the Systemic Circulation have thicker walls to handle the large amount of pressure.

38
  1. What is the source of blood in the hepatic portal system? Why is this blood carried to the liver before it enters the systemic circulation?
  1. The hepatic portal vein drains the digestive tract organs and carries this blood through the liver before it enters systemic circulation.
  2. As blood goes through the liver, some of the nutrients are stored or processed in various ways for release to the general circulation.

39

Heparin prevents blood clotting by inhibiting the formation of _______and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen?

Prothrombin activator.

40

The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of (a) ________, which drains the _______, ______, ___greater curvature of the stomach, and distal large intestine via the inferior mesenteric vein and (b) superior mesenteric, which drains the _____and ______. The gastric vein, which drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, empties directly into the hepatic portal vein.

  1. Splenic Vein
  2. Spleen
  3. Pancreas
  4. Stomach
  5. Small intestine
  6. The Proximal Colon

41

Because net inward pressure in venular capillary ends is less than net outward pressure at the arteriolar ends of capillaries _______ fluid leaves the capillaries and ___fluid returns to the capillary?

  1. More
  2. Less

42

Trace the flow of a drop of blood from the small intestine to the right atrium of the heart, noting all structures encountered or passed through on the way?

  1. Small intestine -> Superior mesenteric Vein -> Hepatic portal Vein -> Inferior Vena cava -> right atrium.

43

What organ serves as a respiratory/digestive/excretory organ for the fetus?

Placenta

44

Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the ______?

Precapillary sphincter

45

For each of the following structures, first indicate its function in the fetus; and then note its fate (what happens to it or what it is converted to after birth). Circle the blood vessel that carries the most oxygenrich blood.

  • Function in Fetus & Fate after Birth for the following.
    • Umbilical artery
    • Umbilical vein
    • Ductus venosus
    • Ductus arteriosus
    • Foramen ovale
card image

46
  1. Which blood vessels are responsible for the exchange of gases and nutrients with tissues?
  1. Capillaries

47

Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the_____________ and delivered to the liver?

  1. Hepatic Portal Vein

48
  1. Which blood vessels conduct blood toward the heart, regardless of oxygen content?
  1. Veins

49
  1. Which blood vessel tunica is the most critical in regulating systemic blood pressure?
  1. Tunica Media

50
  1. Which blood vessels contains the majority of the body’s blood volume at any one time?
  1. Systemic Veins and venules

51
  1. Some of the least permeable capillaries are found in the ________, while some of the most permeable capillaries are found in the _________?
  1. Brain
  2. Bone Marrow

52
  1. What effect do the following have on blood pressure (Indicate increase or decrease by)?
    • increased diameter of the arterioles?
    • increased blood viscosity
    • increased cardiac output
    • hemorrhage
    • arteriosclerosis
    • increased pulse rate
  1. increased diameter of the arterioles?
    1. Decreases
  2. increased blood viscosity?
    1. Increases
  3. increased cardiac output?
    1. Increases
  4. hemorrhage?
    1. Decreases
  5. arteriosclerosis?
    1. Increases
  6. increased pulse rate?
    1. Increases

53

Heart rate in a fetus is about ____, in a newborn about _____, and in an adult about ___?

  1. 145
  2. 140
  3. 70

54

What effect does a long period of skeletal muscle inactivity have on blood flow?

Hypotension, Blood through the veins is inadequate causing Blood Pooling

55
  1. Predict what might happen to peripheral resistance in arterioles supplying skeletal muscle when pH levels drop?
  1. Vasodilation in vessels supplying skeletal muscle

56

List the vessels that blood passes through from the heart and back to the heart?

Elastic artery -> Muscular Artery-> Arteriole-> Continuous Capillary->Fenestrated CapillaryàVenule ->Medium-sized Vein->Large Vein

57

Baroreceptors detect changes in __________?

Blood Pressure in aorta and carotid arteries

58

If baroreceptors are primed to detect blood pressure changes and compensate for them, how is it that some patients suffer from chronic hypertension?

The baroreceptors in these patients have a new higher set point.

59

Which blood vessel supplies blood to parts of the intestinal tract?

Superior mesenteric artery

60

When blood levels of sodium are increased, which hormones would you expect to increase?

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
    • Produced with High Blood Pressure.

61

Why does blood velocity decrease as it flows into a capillary bed?

The cross-sectional area of the capillary beds is approximately 2000× than that of the aorta.

62

The vessel (great veins) that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms and bring it to the heart is the ______?

Superior Vena Cava

63

A decrease in O2 level in skeletal muscle would initiate an autoregulatory mechanism that would stimulate _________ in the arterioles supplying the muscle?

Vasodilation

64

Why is vasodilation prominent in the skin when a person increases physical activity?

Heat is dissipated across the skin from the blood to help cool the body

65

The primary mechanism driving filtration in capillary beds is ______?

Hydrostatic pressure within the capillaries

66

Which type of blood vessel holds the greatest volume of blood?

Vein

67

Capillary colloid osmotic pressure created by _________ tends to _______?

Non diffusible plasma proteins; draw fluids into the capillary

68

What role do the lymphatic vessels have when it comes to fluid movements across capillary beds?

  1. lymphatic vessels reclaim fluid from the tissue spaces that doesn't get returned to the blood

69

Blood is returned to the heart via which blood vessels?

Superior/Inferior Vena Cava coronary sinus

70

Blood drained from digestive organs empties into the ______ before going through the liver?

Hepatic portal vein

71

The major vessel delivering deoxygenated blood to the lungs is the ______?

Pulmonary Arteries

72

How many branches does the aortic arch give rise to?

  1. Three
    1. Brachiocevalic
    2. Left common carotid
    3. Left subclavian

73

What effect does a long period of skeletal muscle inactivity have on blood flow?

Blood through the veins is inadequate causing Blood Pooling

74

The smallest blood vessels in our body is?

Capillaries

75

The muscular layer (tunica) of blood vessels is?

Tunica Media

76
  1. Venules unite to form ________?
  1. Veins

77
  1. In which blood vessels, valve is found?
  1. Veins

78

List types of capillaries?

  1. Continuous capillaries
    1. Have complete lining
    2. Supply most region of body
    3. Can be found in all tissues except epithelial and cartilage
  2. Fenestrated Capillaries
    1. Contain windows (pores) that span endothelial lining
    2. Permit rapid exchange of large solutes as large as peptide
    3. Flattened fenestrated capillaries = sinusoids

79

The exchange between blood vessels and cells occurs in which blood vessels?

  1. Capillaries

80

Which blood vessels also serve as a blood reservoir?

Veins

81

If you have a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg, what is your diastolic pressure? what is your systolic pressure?

  1. Systolic Pressure: 120
  2. Diastolic Pressure: 80 mmHg

82
  1. In which position (sitting, reclining, or standing) is the blood pressure normally the lowest: Standing; Sitting, or Reclining?
  1. Reclining

83
  1. An increase in peripheral resistance would increase or decrease blood pressure?
  1. Increase

84
  1. Materials can move across capillary walls by what kind of transportation?

Osmosis Diffusion

85
  1. When smooth muscles in the walls of the veins are stimulated to contract what happens to blood pressure?
  1. Increases

86
  1. The renin-angiotensin mechanism stimulates the release of which hormone?
  1. Angiotensin I -> Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II at the lungs -> Angiotensin II stimulates Release of Antidiuretic Hormone.

87

The first portion of the aorta is called the ________?

Ascending Aorta

88

80% of the cerebrum is supplied with blood by which major artery?

Internal Carotid Artery

89

Which of the following helps force fluids out of the blood into the tissues?

Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (CHP)

90

Diffusion occurs between blood and interstitial fluid in which vessels?

Capillaries

91

Georgia stands all day at her job. What condition may she develop and suffer as a result?

Varicose veins

92

While standing in the hot sun, Sally begins to feel light-headed and faints. Why?

Blood pooled in her lower limbs which decreased venous return to heart. In turn. Cardiac output decreased so less blood reached her brain. Also blood volume drops due to fluid loss from sweating.

93

Why does most filtration take place at the arterial end of a capillary?

Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (CHP) is higher at the arterial end.

94

Why are valves located in veins, but not in arteries?

Veins have less pressure which will cause backflow thus needs valves so the blood doesn’t go back. Arteries have high pressure and go with gravity.

95

During increased exercise, venous return increases or decreases? why?

Increase because skeletal muscles increase Venus return through contraction

96

The hepatic portal system delivers _____?

Nutrient filled Blood to the liver

97

In fetal circulation, what is the role of the ductus venosus?

Collects blood from veins of the liver and empties into the inferior vena cava

98

Grace is in an automobile accident, and her celiac trunk is ruptured. Which organs are directly affected by this injury?

Stomach, Spleen, liver and Pancreas

99

Blood from the face and scalp is drained by the?

External jugular vein

100

Which is a unique characteristic of arteries, when compared to veins?

  1. Its elasticity
  2. Arteries contain an internal elastic membrane in their tunica interna.

101

Are both sets of valves closed during any part of the cycle? If so, when?

  1. yes, iosvolumetric ventricular

102

ADH, angiotensin II, EPO, and ANP are all involved in long-term regulation of blood volume. Which two are also important in regulating blood pressure?

Angiotensin II and ADH

103

Use the key provided to describe each tunic by selecting its characteristics from the key:

Key:

  1. innermost tunic
  2. most superficial tunic
  3. thin tunic of capillaries
  4. especially thick in elastic arteries
  5. contains smooth muscle and elastin
  6. has a smooth surface to decrease resistance to blood flow.
  1. Tunica intima?
    1. Innermost tunic
    2. Thin Tunic of Capillaries.
  2. Tunica media?
    1. Especially Thick in elastic arteries
    2. Contains smooth Muscle and elastin
  3. Tunica externa?
    1. Most Superficial Tunic
    2. Has a smooth surface to decrease resistance to blood flow.

104
card image

Cross-sectional views of an artery and of a vein are shown here. Identify each; and on the lines to the sides, note the structural details that enabled you to make these identifications?

Key:

  1. vein
  2. artery
  3. somewhat collapsed lumen
  4. thick tunica media
  5. open
  6. circular lumen
  7. thinner tunica media
  1. Artery
    1. Thick Tunica media
    2. Circular Lumen
  2. Vein
    1. Somewhat collapsed lumen
    2. Thinner Tunica Media