Exam 3

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1

Of the 8–10 L of fluid entering the GI tract daily, _______.

  • only 100–200 mL are excreted in the stool
2

Which of the following is NOT considered an accessory to the digestive system?

enteric nervous system

3

Food is pushed along the digestive tract by ___________.

  • peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle in digestive tract walls
4

Mucus is a viscous secretion produced by _____ cells

  • mucus
  • serous
  • goblet
  • All of the above
5

Which function(s) is/are NOT continuously regulated by the GI tract?

absorption

6

Bicarbonate secretion occurs primarily in the _______.

small intestine

7

Intrinsic factor is secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach and is required for the absorption of _________.

vitamin B12

8

The body’s specific immune response is mediated by _______.

antibodies

9

The leukocytes primarily responsible for the specific immune response are _______.

lymphocytes

10

Which of the following are associated with allergic reactions and parasitic diseases?

eosinophils

11

Which of the following are phagocytes?

  • monocytes
  • neutrophils
  • macrophages
  • eosinophils
  • All of the above
12

Blocking the antigen receptors on the lymphocyte surface would interfere with ___________.

the lymphocyte’s ability to recognize antigen

13

B lymphocytes are primarily activated by the activities of _______.

  • helper T cells
14

The most common white blood cell in the blood is the ________.

neutrophil

15

Increased levels of which of the following acute-phase proteins is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease?

  • C-reactive protein
16

True or false? The secondary immune response is quicker and larger because of effector cells that remain behind after the first exposure.

True

17

Innate immunity includes ________.

  • gastric acid
  • lysozymes
  • skin
  • A, B, and C
18

A cell in the body is recognized as “self” by its __________ and is therefore not targeted by the immune response for destruction.

  • MHC membrane proteins
19

Autoimmune diseases _____________.

  • act against the body’s normal components
20
  • Which of the following release mediators that contribute to inflammation?

basophils

21
  • Which immune cells are associated with antibody secretion?

plasma cells

22

Heart muscle cells get their oxygen _______.

  • from coronary arteries
23

The right ventricle normally has less muscle mass than the left ventricle and creates less pressure when it contracts because _________.

  • pulmonary resistance is less than systemic resistance
24

The oxygen content of blood in the aorta is _____ the oxygen content of blood in the pulmonary artery.

  • greater than
25

Which factor is most important in influencing blood flow?

  • diameter of the vessels
26

If there is no flow from A to B, then you know that the pressure in A is _____ the pressure in B.

  • the same as
27

If there is flow from B to C, then you know that the pressure in B is _____ the pressure in C.

  • higher than
28

Given tubes of equal length and diameter (and the inflow/outflow pressures below), which will have the highest flow?

  • in = 70 mm Hg, out = 10 mm Hg
29

If radius (r) increases, then resistance (R) will ___________.

decrease

30

In myocardium, voltage-gated K+ channels are found in the _____ cells and contribute to the _____ phase of the action potential.

  • autorhythmic and contractile;
    repolarization
31

Calcium ions play a direct role in the action potentials of ________.

  • all myocardial cells
32

Which of the following is the SAME in the action of a neuron and of autorhythmic myocardium?

  • ion(s) responsible for falling phase
33

In myocardium, voltage-gated Na+ channels are found in the _____ cells and contribute to the _____ phase of the action potential.

  • contractile; depolarization
34

True or false? The refractory period in a cardiac muscle fiber lasts almost as long as the entire muscle twitch.

true

35

Which graph represents sympathetic influence on heart rate (in both cases the light grey line is "normal," or without influence)?

A

36

In which graph is the K+ permeability during the pacemaker potential increased?

B

37

The electrical signal for contraction of the heart begins when the _________ fires an action potential.

  • sinoatrial node (SA node)
38

The T wave of the ECG shows _______.

  • None of the above
39

The P wave of the ECG shows _______.

  • atrial depolarization
40

With which ECG feature is isovolumic ventricular contraction most closely associated?

  • QRS complex
41

The average blood pressure is highest in the ______.

aorta

42

Cardiac output is the product of _________.

  • heart beat rate and stroke volume
43
  • During isovolumic ventricular contraction, which of the following occurs?

pressure increases

44
  • In which stage of the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the ventricle NOT greater than the pressure in the atria?

isovolumic ventricular relaxation

45
  • Why does the heart generate a larger force with greater ventricular stretch?

As sarcomere length increases, contraction force increases.

46
  • Which of the following has the greatest effect on blood flow resistance?

vessel diameter

47
  • Which pressure best represents the driving pressure of the heart?

mean arterial pressure

48

When an arteriole dilates, blood flow through it _______.

  • increases
49

If one arteriole constricts and nothing else changes, what will happen to mean arterial pressure (MAP)?

  • It will increase.
50

True or false? Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is estimated as diastolic pressure minus one-third of pulse pressure.

false

51

Mean arterial pressure is determined by _____________.

  • cardiac output
  • resistance of the system to blood flow
  • the distribution of blood in the systemic circulation
  • total blood volume
  • All of the above
52

When oxygen content of tissue interstitial fluid decreases, systemic arterioles _______.

dilate

53

A sudden elevation in aortic blood pressure _____.

  • reduces stroke volume
54

The decrease in blood pressure upon standing is known as ______________.

  • orthostatic hypotension
55

Which blood components have no nucleus?

  • Two of the above
56

The term for the production of blood cells is _____________.

  • hematopoiesis
57

Blood cells are produced in the ________.

  • bone marrow
58

An athlete using EPO is hoping to generate an increase in _______.

  • red blood cells
59

True or false? Red blood cells in the circulation live for approximately 120 days.

true

60

What is the role of collagen in coagulation?

  • It starts the intrinsic pathway.
61

What is the role of tissue factor, also called tissue thromboplastin or factor III, in coagulation?

  • It starts the extrinsic pathway.
62

The end product(s) of the coagulation cascade is/are ______.

  • fibrin polymers
63

Platelets function in

transporting chemicals important for clotting.

forming temporary patches in injured areas.

contraction after clot formation.

initiating the clotting process.

All of the answers are correct.

64

The QRS complex of an ECG corresponds to

the progressive wave of ventricular depolarization.

65

The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the

red blood cells.

66

The Cardiovascular System is a closed loop of a series of tubes filled with fluid that is comprised of

the heart

blood vessels

blood

all of the above (heart, blood vessels and blood)

67

Molecules that attract immune cells are known as

chemotaxins

68

Which of the following acts as the earliest form of defense against exogenous pathogens in the list?

skin

69

During strenuous exercise, cardiac output (CO)

rises dramtically

70

Autorhythmic cells

are also called pacemakers because they set the rate of the heartbeat.

71

When the immune system creates a response that is overblown in relation to the threat it has been exposed to, the response is called an

allergic reaction

72

In the heart, valves are located

between atria and ventricles and between ventricles and arteries.

73

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is important because

it represents the driving pressure for blood flow.

74

Put these autorhythmic cells into the correct order for conveying electrical signals through a normal heart.

  1. bundle of His
  2. internodal pathway
  3. Purkinje fibers
  4. atrioventricular node
  5. sinoatrial nodes
  6. left and right bundle branches

5, 2, 4, 1, 6, 3

75

ECGs

show the summed electrical potentials generated by all cells of the heart.

76

What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?

humoral immunity

77

Due to the differences in opposing forces, there is net ________ occurring at the arteriolar end of most capillaries, coupled with net ________ at the venous end.

filtration, absorption

78

Which event happens at the start of a cardiac cycle?

The SA node fires.

79

________ cells enable the immune system to respond more quickly if the same antigen is encountered a second time.

Memory

80

When the heart is in fibrillation,

effective pumping of the ventricles ceases because the myocardial cells fail to work as a team, and the brain cannot get adequate oxygen.

81

The normal pacemaker of the heart is the

sinoatrial node.

82

The cardiac output is equal to

the product of heart rate and stroke volume.

83

Atrial contraction

begins during the latter part of the P wave.

84

Which type of blood vessel holds the greatest volume of blood?

Vein

85

The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the

release of tissue factor by a damaged endothelium.

86

A decrease in which population of lymphocytes would impair all aspects of an immune response?

helper T cells

87

Lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with viruses are

cytotoxic T cells.

88

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

carotid sinus and aortic arch

89

The _______ supply blood to the heart muscle itself.

  • coronary arteries
90

The right ventricle pumps _______ blood into the _______ circulation.

  • deoxygenated; pulmonary
91

The oxygen content of blood in the aorta is _______ the oxygen content of blood in the pulmonary artery.

greater than

92

Which of the following pairings is NOT correct?

  • narrow end of the heart that points downward → base
93

Which of these statements about the heart is FALSE?

  • The action potential of a cardiac contractile
    cell is identical to that of a skeletal muscle cell.
94

Which of the following is the SAME regarding the action potential of a neuron and of a myocardial contractile cell?

  • Na+ influx is responsible for depolarization phase
  • K+ efflux is responsible for rapid repolarization phase
  • A and B
95

In the myocardium, voltage-gated K+ channels are found in the _______ cells and contribute to the _______ phase of the action potential.

  • autorhythmic and contractile; repolarization
96

In cardiomyocytes, voltage-gated Na+ channels are found in the _______ cells and contribute to the _______ phase of the action potential.

  • contractile; depolarization
97

The refractory period in a cardiac muscle fiber lasts almost as long as the entire muscle twitch.

true

98
  • If the membranes of the cardiac muscle cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions,
  • B) the heart rate will decrease.
99

Why is it necessary to direct the electrical signals in the heart through the AV node instead of allowing them to spread directly from the atria to the ventricles?

Answer: If electrical signals from the atria were conducted directly into the ventricles, the ventricles would start contraction at the top. The blood would be squeezed downward and would be trapped in the bottom of the ventricles.

100

Explain what is meant by the terms respiratory pump and skeletal muscle pump. Why are these important to the cardiovascular system?

  • Both refer to pressure exerted on the blood in veins that assist in venous return.
  • During the pressure changes in the thoracic cavity associated with normal breathing, pressure in the thoracic portion of the inferior vena cava fluctuates, resulting in blood being drawn upward in the vena cava during each inhalation.
  • Contractile activity of normal skeletal muscle momentarily squeezes the veins within and near the muscles, also helping to propel the blood. These and other slight pressure changes are essential because the overall pressure gradient of the venous system is low.
101

The immune system does which of the following?

removes dead or damaged cells

  • protects against pathogens
  • removes abnormal cells that arise during cell replication
  • A,B and C
102

Physical barriers are the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Which of the following is an example of a physical barrier?

mucous membranes lining the GI and respiratory tracts

103

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks

myelin sheaths of neurons.

104

Autoimmune diseases _____________.

act against the body’s normal components

105

When the immune system creates a response that is overblown in relation to the threat it has been exposed to, the response is called an

allergic reaction.

106

Which of the following are associated with allergic reactions and parasitic diseases?

  • eosinophils
107

Which of the following are phagocytic?

  • monocytes
  • neutrophils
  • macrophages
  • eosinophils
  • All of the above
108

What is the most common leukocyte in the blood?

neutrophil

109

Most leukocytes circulate in the blood but migrate outside of the vessels to perform their function. Which of the following pairings represent the same cell?

  • monocytes; macrophages
110

Acute-phase proteins increase immediately in response to injury or invasion of a pathogen but may persist in chronic inflammatory diseases. Which of the following is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease?

  • C-reactive protein
111

Which of the following chemicals stimulate pain receptors?

bradykinins

112

The complement cascade terminates in which of the following?

  • membrane attack complex
  • lipid-soluble proteins inserted into the infected cell membrane
  • cell death
  • All of the above
113

A sphygmomanometer measures

blood pressure.

114

Blood pressure and flow to the brain are monitored by receptors located in the wall of the

carotid artery.

115

Impulses that the vagus nerve carries to the heart

are parasympathetic and decrease heart rate.

116

Which of the following might serve as a secondary pacemaker for the heart?

Both AV node and Purkinje fibers

117

When the ventricular walls contract,

the mitral and tricuspid valves close.

118

The term used to describe the amount of blood in the ventricle available to be pumped out of the heart during the next contraction is

end-diastolic volume (EDV).

119

The cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity are the

T lymphocytes

120

The depolarization of the pacemaker action potential spreads to adjacent cells through

gap junctions.

121

NK cells cause apoptosis of viral-infected cells is a type of ______________ immunity.

nonspecific

122

An abnormally slow heart rate is termed

bradycardia.

123

Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs?

Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve

124

A person's blood type is determined by

the presence or absence of specific glycoprotein molecules on their cell membrane.

125

The spleen _______.

positions immune cells to encounter foreign invaders

AND

encapsulates lymphoid tissues

126

Stem cells that will form T lymphocytes are modified in the

thymus.

127

Plasma is mostly

Water

128

The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the

release of tissue factor by a damaged endothelium.

129

A person with blood type B should be able to receive a successful blood transfusion from a donor of which blood type(s)?

B or O, but no other types

130

An abnormally slow heart rate is termed

bradycardia.