Chapter 19 - Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards


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1

Sensory Portion (PNS)

Consist of nerve fibers the conduct impulses TOWARD the CNS.

2

Motor Arm (PNS)

Consists of nerve fibers that conduct impulses AWAY from the CNS.

3

Somatic Divison

Sometimes called the voluntary system.
Controls skeletal muscles.

4

Autonmic Nervous System

Efferent division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates cardiac and smooth muscles and glands; also called the involuntary or visceral motor system.

5

Sympathetic Nevous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity or to cope with some stressor (danger, excitement, etc.); the fight, fright, and flight subdivision.

6

Parasympethetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that oversees digestion, elimination, and glandular function; the resting and digesting subdivision.

7

Cerebral Hemisperes

The most superior portion of the brain.
Consist of gyri and sulci.
Divided into left and right hemispheres the into lobes.

8

Gyri

An outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex.

9

Sulci

A furrow on the brain, less deep than a fissure.

10

Fissures

The deepest depressions or inward folds on the brain.

11

Longitudinal Fissure

Divide brain into left and right hemisperes.

12

Transverse Fissure

Seperates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe.

13

Central Sulcus

Divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

14
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What is A?

Frontal Lobe

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What is B?

Parietal Lobe

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What is C?

Temporal Lobe

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What is D?

Occipital Lobe

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What is E?

Parieto-Occipital Sulcus

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What is F?

Lateral Sulcus

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What is G?

Transverse Sulcus

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What is H?

Central Sulcuc

22
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What is A?

Pineal body (gland)

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What is B?

Hypothalamus

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What is C?

Cerebellum

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What is D?

Arbor Vita

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What is E?

Medulla Oblongata

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What is F?

Pons

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What is G?

Thalamus

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What is I?

Corpus Callosum

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Diencephalon

That part of the forebrain between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain including the thalamus, the epithalamus, and the hypothalamus.

31

Olfactory Bulbs

Enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities.

32

Octip Chiasma

The partial crossover of fibers of the optic nerves.

33

Thalamus

A mass of gray matter in the diencephalon of the brain.

34

Hypothalamas

Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.

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Pituitary Gland

Neuroendocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, and water balance.

36

Mammillary Gland

Along with the anterior and dorsomedial nuclei in the thalamus, are involved with the processing of recognition memory.

37

Epithalamus

Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms the roof of the third ventricle with the pineal gland extending from its posterior border.

38

Pineal Body

A hormone-secreting part of the diencephalon of the brain thought to be involved in setting the biological clock and influencing reproductive function.

39

Choroid Plexus

A capillary knot that protrudes into a brain ventricle; involved in forming cerebrospinal fluid.

40

Corpus Callosum

A broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.

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Brain Stem

Collectively the midbrain, pons, and medulla of the brain.

42

Cerebral Peduncles

A bundle of myelinated neurons joining different parts of the brain.

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Pons

the part of the brain stem connecting the medulla with the midbrain, providing linkage between upper and lower levels of the central nervous system.

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Medulla Oblongota

Inferiormost part of the brain stem.

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Superior Colliculi

Part of the copora quadrigemina

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Inferior Colliculi

Part of the copora quadrigemina

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Arbor Vitae

The arborescent appearance of the white matter in a vertical section of the cerebellum.

48

Meninges

Protective coverings of the central nervous system; from the most external to the most internal, the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

49

Dura Mater

Outermost and toughest of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord.

50

Arachnoid Mater

The middle layer of the three meninges.

51

Pia Mater

Innermost layer of the meninges.

52

Cranial Nerves

The 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain.

53

Olfactory (I)

Function: Smell (purely sensory)

54

Optic (II)

Function: Sight (purely sensory)

55

Oculomotor (III)

Function: Visual Motor

56

Trochelear (IV)

Function: Visual Motor

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Trigeminal (V)

Function: Major sensor of face

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Adbucens (VI)

Function: Visual Motor

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Facial (VII)

Function: Visual, lacrimal, salivary.

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Vestibulochlear (VIII)

Function:Hearing (purely sensory)

61

Glassophyryngeal (IX)

Function: Throat and mouth

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Vagus (X)

Function:Pharynx, larynx, and involuntary muslces

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Accessory (XI)

Function: Motor

64

Hypoglossal (XII)

Function: Motor and tongue