Clickers Bio 202 Flashcards


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1

What gland secretes epinephrine and sits on top of the kidneys?

Adrenal

2

What causes the mental retardation for the condition Cretinism?

(lack of)Thyroid Hormone

3

What gland makes the growth hormone?

Pituitary

4

Hormones released from this gland include ADH and oxytocin?

Posterior Pituitary

5

Melatonin, hormones by this gland, controls our diurnal (daily) cycle?

Pineal

6

Which hormones are produced by parathyroid gland?

only PTH

7

The adrenal cortex produces hormones...

aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens

8

These hormones pass through the hypophyseal portal system to act on cells of the anterior pituitary gland?

Releasing and Inhibiting hormones

9

This hormone stimulates the uterine contraction during birth and cause milk ejection in a lactating mother?

oxytocin

10

The function of this hormone is to stimulate growth, particularly long bones and muscle

Growth hormone

11

This adrenal cortex hormone is involved in the regulation of salt and water balance

aldosterone

12

Hypersecretion of this hormone results in loss of calcium from bones, and softening and spontaneous fractures of the boness

PTH

13

Hypersecretion of ______ results in increased urinary output and dehydration

ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)

14

This gland produces calcitonin

Thyroid gland

15

Gland located on cranial cavity and produces hormone melatonin

Pineal gland

16

Glucagon

raises blood glucose

17

This hormone is a major controller of blood calcium on a day-to-day basis

PTH

18

Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary include

LH

FSH

ACTH

TSH

19

Connected by a stalk called the infundibulum, this region of the brain is intimately associated with the pituitary gland and its hormones

Hypothalamus

20

Axon potentials from hypothalamic neurons cause release of this hormone

Oxytocin

21

Blood borne factors (ions, glucose, amino acids) cause release of all these hormones except _____

A. insulin

B. calcitonin

C. epinephrine

D. PTH

epinephrine

22

Diabetes insipidus, condition characterized by thirst and excessive urine output is caused by

hyposecretion of ADH

23

Which cells of the pancreas produce insulin?

Beta cells

24

Grave's disease, characterized by high metabolic rate, weight loss, irregular heart rate, and protrusion of eyeballs is caused by ____

hypersecretion of TH

25

GH and PRL are produced by these anterior pituitary cells ___

Acidophil cells

26

Hyposecretion of insulin, or deficiency of insulin receptors leads to

Diabetes Mellitus

27

These hormones are produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. They help the body resist long-term stressors

Glucocorticoids

28

In addition to endocrine glands, some organs whose functions are primarily nonendocrine also produce hormones. These endocrine tissues include ___

Heart and kidneys

29

Normally amount of plasma in whole blood is ____ than the amount of formed elements; plasma makes up approximately ___% of whole blood.

Greater; 55%

30

What is true about blood typing?

AB contains antigens A and B

31

Most accurate way to assess oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is probably to measure ___

Hemoglobin content

32

Hematocrit measures ___

volume of RBC in a blood sample

33

This formed element is essential for blood clotting

platelets

34

Which white blood cells kill parasitic worms and play complex role in allergic responses and asthma?

Eosinophils

35

Most abundant leukocytes (40-70%) of all white cells?

Neutrophils

36

The total WBC count ranges from ___ to ___ /mm3 of blood

4,800 to 10,800 cells

37

Granulocytes include ___

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

38

A normal RBC count ___

4-6 million/mm3 of blood

39

The most numerous blood cells are

RBCs

40

This component of blood plasma includes molecules that are important for body defense, osmotic balance, and lipid transport

Plasma proteins

41

Platelets are cell fragments of large multinucleate cells called ___

Megakaryocytes

42

Which of the following WBC are granulocytes?

basophils and neutrophils

43

This is the largest WBC. It lacks cytoplasmic granules and had a kidney-shaped nucleus?

Monocyte

44

You can recognize these WBC because they have a bilobed nucleus and red granules in the cytoplasm.

Eosinophil

45

The final step in coagulation is the formation of ___

Fibrin

46

A person with type AB blood receives a transfusion of type O blood. Will there be a transfusion reaction? Why or why not?

No. The recipient has no antibodies to antigens A and B and therefore can receive blood from a type O donor

47

A patient reports to the doctor that she bruises very easily, and when she cuts herself, she has a hard time stopping the bleeding. What test might a healthcare provider order to diagnose this problem?

Coagulation time

48

Anti-B and anti-RH

B+ type blood

49

A blood test reveals a large increase in the number of RBCs. One possible explanation may be is ____

Polycythmia

50

A person who has symptoms of paleness and chronic fatigue is suspected of having anemia. To investigate further, it would be helpful to measure ___

Hematocrit

51

Leukopenia ___

may indicate a disease such as cirrhoses of the liver or tuberculosis

52

A person with B- blood receives O+ blood. This is the person's very first transfusion. Will there be a reaction? Why or why not?

No. The recipient has not antibodies to RH factor because this is the first transfusion.

53

The heart is located in a subdivision of the thorax called the ____

Mediastinum

54

The pericardial sac that encloses the heart is a 2-layered structure. The outer layer is called the ___

fibrous pericardium

55

The portion of the pericardium that covers the heart wall is called the ___

visceral layer (epicardium)

56

How many chambers make up the human heart?

4

57

The major pumping chambers of the heart are ____

both ventricles

58

The shapes and the thickness of the walls of the right ventricle compared to the left are ___

different; L ventricle is egg-shaped (round in the cross section) with thicker walls

59

The mitral vlave is located between the

left atrium and left ventricle

60

What is true of the semilunar valves?

They lie between ventricles and the large arteries that leave the ventricles on each side of the heart

61

What is true about heart valves?

They enforce a one-way blood flow through the heart, operate passively (no active contraction required), and separate atria from ventricles, and ventricles from the large arteries that leave them.

62

Which side of the heart receives blood from the body and and pumps it to the lungs

Right

63

Pulmonary veins carry ____ blood to the _____

oxygenated; left atrium

64

The pulmonary trunk and arteries are color-coded ____ on models and in pictures because they carry ____ blood

blue; oxygen-poor

65

Select the sequence that correctly describes blood through the heart

left atrium to left ventricle to body

66

In the coronary circulation, oygen-rich blood is provided to the heart muscle by the ___

right and left coronary arteries

67

Cardiac muscle tissue ____

is striated, like skeletal muscle tissue

68

the largest artery in the body, the aorta, leaves the heart from the ____

left ventricle

69

Blood arriveing in the right atrium has just come from the ____

venae cavae and coronary sinus

70

Blood has just been discharged into the pulmonary trunk: from which did it exit?

right ventricle

71

The atrioventricular (AV) heart valves open and close ______

passively, depending on the pressure of the blood in the atria and ventricles

72

The heart is called a double pump because ____

it is two separate side-by-side pumps serving different circulations

73

These vessels carry oxygen-rich blood

aorta and pulmonary veins

74

What is the name of the circuit that supplies blood to the brain, heart, and gastrointestinal tract?

systemic circulation

75

Which artery supplies the anterior ventricular walls and laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart?

left coronary artery

76

Which of the veins listed here drains directly into the right atrium?

Great cardiac vein

77

The intercalated discs in cardiac muscle tissue ____

mark the junction between the 2 cardiac cells

78

This structure is a remnant of a fetal vessel that connected the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

ligamentum arteriosum

79

________ is/are found in the ventricles, and attach the flaps of the AV valves to papillary muscle

chordae tendinae

80

The _____ is/are a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers connecting the interventricular septum to anterior papillary muscles

moderator band

81

Arteries and veins are constructed of ____ tunics

3

82

The tunica media consists of ___

smooth muscle and elastic fibers

83

The ___ artery carries blood from the subclavian to the brachial artery

axillary

84

In correct sequence from superior to inferior, the three single arteries that arise from the abdominal aorta are ___

celia trunk, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery

85

The function of tunica externa is to _____

support and protect the vessel

86

Two pairs of arteries supply the brain. They are ___

internal carotids and vertebral arteries

87

What is not true about the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?

Surrounds the brainstem

88

The sublcavian artery that arises directly from the aorta supplies the ____

left upper extremity and neck

89

Bronchial arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the lungs and bronchi arise from the _____

thoracic aorta

90

The superior mesenteric artery supplies the ___

stomach and small intestine

91

Which of the following vessels does not belong to the hepatic portal circulation?

Gastroepiploic vein

92

The aorta terminates when it divides into the ____

common iliac arteries

93

These veins drain your brain

internal jugular veins

94

The ____ is a small vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta in fetal circulation.

ductus arteriosus

95

The right gastric artery branches off of the ____

common hepatic artery

96

The external iliac vein_____

receives venous blood from lower extremities

97

The longest vein in the body, this superficial vein is located on the medial side of the lower limb

great saphenous

98

The ___ carry oxygen-rich blood between the lungs and the heart.

pulmonary veins

99

blood vessels that absorb strong pressure pulses contain more of this type of tissue

smooth muscle and elastic

100

In a microscopic field showing an artery and its corresponding vein, you can easily distinguish the 2 because ___

veins have thinner walls and are irregular in shape

101

This tunic is much thicker in a muscular artery than in its corresponding vein.

tunica media

102

These thin-walled vessels are the only ones through which exchanges between the cells and the blood.

capillaries

103

There are 2 brachiocephalic veins and ___ brachiocephalic artery (arteries)

1

104

These veins drain the thigh ___

femoral

105

This vein is the upper limb is often the site from which the blood is drawn.

median cubital

106

Arteries that supply the intestines arise from the aorta. veins that drain the intestines

ultimately drain into the hepatic portal vein

107

Having venous blood from the intestines flow through the liver before entering the systemic circulation has the following advantages:

The liver can process products of digestion before blood circulates the whole body

108

the ____ vein runs between the cephalic and basilic veins on the anterior aspects of the elbow

median cubital

109

in the fetus, which blood vessel(s) carries CO2 and metabolic wastes from the fetus to the placenta

umbilical vein