109 notecards = 28 pages (4 cards per page)
What gland secretes epinephrine and sits on top of the kidneys?
What causes the mental retardation for the condition Cretinism?
(lack of)Thyroid Hormone
What gland makes the growth hormone?
Hormones released from this gland include ADH and oxytocin?
Melatonin, hormones by this gland, controls our diurnal (daily) cycle?
Which hormones are produced by parathyroid gland?
The adrenal cortex produces hormones...
aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
These hormones pass through the hypophyseal portal system to act on cells of the anterior pituitary gland?
Releasing and Inhibiting hormones
This hormone stimulates the uterine contraction during birth and cause milk ejection in a lactating mother?
The function of this hormone is to stimulate growth, particularly long bones and muscle
This adrenal cortex hormone is involved in the regulation of salt and water balance
Hypersecretion of this hormone results in loss of calcium from bones, and softening and spontaneous fractures of the boness
Hypersecretion of ______ results in increased urinary output and dehydration
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
This gland produces calcitonin
Gland located on cranial cavity and produces hormone melatonin
raises blood glucose
This hormone is a major controller of blood calcium on a day-to-day basis
Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary include
Connected by a stalk called the infundibulum, this region of the brain is intimately associated with the pituitary gland and its hormones
Axon potentials from hypothalamic neurons cause release of this hormone
Blood borne factors (ions, glucose, amino acids) cause release of all these hormones except _____
Diabetes insipidus, condition characterized by thirst and excessive urine output is caused by
hyposecretion of ADH
Which cells of the pancreas produce insulin?
Grave's disease, characterized by high metabolic rate, weight loss, irregular heart rate, and protrusion of eyeballs is caused by ____
hypersecretion of TH
GH and PRL are produced by these anterior pituitary cells ___
Hyposecretion of insulin, or deficiency of insulin receptors leads to
These hormones are produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. They help the body resist long-term stressors
In addition to endocrine glands, some organs whose functions are primarily nonendocrine also produce hormones. These endocrine tissues include ___
Heart and kidneys
Normally amount of plasma in whole blood is ____ than the amount of formed elements; plasma makes up approximately ___% of whole blood.
What is true about blood typing?
AB contains antigens A and B
Most accurate way to assess oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is probably to measure ___
Hematocrit measures ___
volume of RBC in a blood sample
This formed element is essential for blood clotting
Which white blood cells kill parasitic worms and play complex role in allergic responses and asthma?
Most abundant leukocytes (40-70%) of all white cells?
The total WBC count ranges from ___ to ___ /mm3 of blood
4,800 to 10,800 cells
Granulocytes include ___
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
A normal RBC count ___
4-6 million/mm3 of blood
The most numerous blood cells are
This component of blood plasma includes molecules that are important for body defense, osmotic balance, and lipid transport
Platelets are cell fragments of large multinucleate cells called ___
Which of the following WBC are granulocytes?
basophils and neutrophils
This is the largest WBC. It lacks cytoplasmic granules and had a kidney-shaped nucleus?
You can recognize these WBC because they have a bilobed nucleus and red granules in the cytoplasm.
The final step in coagulation is the formation of ___
A person with type AB blood receives a transfusion of type O blood. Will there be a transfusion reaction? Why or why not?
No. The recipient has no antibodies to antigens A and B and therefore can receive blood from a type O donor
A patient reports to the doctor that she bruises very easily, and when she cuts herself, she has a hard time stopping the bleeding. What test might a healthcare provider order to diagnose this problem?
Anti-B and anti-RH
B+ type blood
A blood test reveals a large increase in the number of RBCs. One possible explanation may be is ____
A person who has symptoms of paleness and chronic fatigue is suspected of having anemia. To investigate further, it would be helpful to measure ___
may indicate a disease such as cirrhoses of the liver or tuberculosis
A person with B- blood receives O+ blood. This is the person's very first transfusion. Will there be a reaction? Why or why not?
No. The recipient has not antibodies to RH factor because this is the first transfusion.
The heart is located in a subdivision of the thorax called the ____
The pericardial sac that encloses the heart is a 2-layered structure. The outer layer is called the ___
The portion of the pericardium that covers the heart wall is called the ___
visceral layer (epicardium)
How many chambers make up the human heart?
The major pumping chambers of the heart are ____
The shapes and the thickness of the walls of the right ventricle compared to the left are ___
different; L ventricle is egg-shaped (round in the cross section) with thicker walls
The mitral vlave is located between the
left atrium and left ventricle
What is true of the semilunar valves?
They lie between ventricles and the large arteries that leave the ventricles on each side of the heart
What is true about heart valves?
They enforce a one-way blood flow through the heart, operate passively (no active contraction required), and separate atria from ventricles, and ventricles from the large arteries that leave them.
Which side of the heart receives blood from the body and and pumps it to the lungs
Pulmonary veins carry ____ blood to the _____
oxygenated; left atrium
The pulmonary trunk and arteries are color-coded ____ on models and in pictures because they carry ____ blood
Select the sequence that correctly describes blood through the heart
left atrium to left ventricle to body
In the coronary circulation, oygen-rich blood is provided to the heart muscle by the ___
right and left coronary arteries
Cardiac muscle tissue ____
is striated, like skeletal muscle tissue
the largest artery in the body, the aorta, leaves the heart from the ____
Blood arriveing in the right atrium has just come from the ____
venae cavae and coronary sinus
Blood has just been discharged into the pulmonary trunk: from which did it exit?
The atrioventricular (AV) heart valves open and close ______
passively, depending on the pressure of the blood in the atria and ventricles
The heart is called a double pump because ____
it is two separate side-by-side pumps serving different circulations
These vessels carry oxygen-rich blood
aorta and pulmonary veins
What is the name of the circuit that supplies blood to the brain, heart, and gastrointestinal tract?
Which artery supplies the anterior ventricular walls and laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart?
left coronary artery
Which of the veins listed here drains directly into the right atrium?
Great cardiac vein
The intercalated discs in cardiac muscle tissue ____
mark the junction between the 2 cardiac cells
This structure is a remnant of a fetal vessel that connected the pulmonary trunk and the aorta
________ is/are found in the ventricles, and attach the flaps of the AV valves to papillary muscle
The _____ is/are a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers connecting the interventricular septum to anterior papillary muscles
Arteries and veins are constructed of ____ tunics
The tunica media consists of ___
smooth muscle and elastic fibers
The ___ artery carries blood from the subclavian to the brachial artery
In correct sequence from superior to inferior, the three single arteries that arise from the abdominal aorta are ___
celia trunk, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery
The function of tunica externa is to _____
support and protect the vessel
Two pairs of arteries supply the brain. They are ___
internal carotids and vertebral arteries
What is not true about the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?
Surrounds the brainstem
The sublcavian artery that arises directly from the aorta supplies the ____
left upper extremity and neck
Bronchial arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the lungs and bronchi arise from the _____
The superior mesenteric artery supplies the ___
stomach and small intestine
Which of the following vessels does not belong to the hepatic portal circulation?
The aorta terminates when it divides into the ____
common iliac arteries
These veins drain your brain
internal jugular veins
The ____ is a small vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta in fetal circulation.
The right gastric artery branches off of the ____
common hepatic artery
The external iliac vein_____
receives venous blood from lower extremities
The longest vein in the body, this superficial vein is located on the medial side of the lower limb
The ___ carry oxygen-rich blood between the lungs and the heart.
blood vessels that absorb strong pressure pulses contain more of this type of tissue
smooth muscle and elastic
In a microscopic field showing an artery and its corresponding vein, you can easily distinguish the 2 because ___
veins have thinner walls and are irregular in shape
This tunic is much thicker in a muscular artery than in its corresponding vein.
These thin-walled vessels are the only ones through which exchanges between the cells and the blood.
There are 2 brachiocephalic veins and ___ brachiocephalic artery (arteries)
These veins drain the thigh ___
This vein is the upper limb is often the site from which the blood is drawn.
Arteries that supply the intestines arise from the aorta. veins that drain the intestines
ultimately drain into the hepatic portal vein
Having venous blood from the intestines flow through the liver before entering the systemic circulation has the following advantages:
The liver can process products of digestion before blood circulates the whole body
the ____ vein runs between the cephalic and basilic veins on the anterior aspects of the elbow
in the fetus, which blood vessel(s) carries CO2 and metabolic wastes from the fetus to the placenta