Human Anatomy & Physiology: Nutrition Festival 8 Flashcards


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Chapter 24
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1

The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.

True
False

True

2

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

-glycogen is formed
-glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water
-glycogen is broken down to release glucose
-glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursers

3

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

-lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
-glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
-gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis
-glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

(good, kids, eat, orange popsicles)

4

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

-vitamin K
-vitamin B
-vitamin D
-vitamin A

vitamin B

5

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

-to metabolize nutrients
-to generate ATP
-to produce proteins
-to oxidize glucose

to generate ATP

6

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

-fats
-vitamins and minerals
-foods and beverages high in caffeine
-proteins

fats

7

The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

-phospholipids
-fatty acids
-triglycerides
-cholesterol

triglycerides

8

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

-ketogenesis
-beta oxidation
-lipogenesis
-lipolysis

lipolysis

9

__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

-A nutrient
-A calorie
-A hormone
-ATP

A nutrient

10

In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed.

True
False

True

11

__________ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

-Anabolism
-Metabolism
-Catabolism
-Carboxylation

Catabolism

12

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

-pancreas
-liver
-spleen
-brain

brain

13

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

-eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
-corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ
-egg yolk, fish roe, and grains
-lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

eggs, milk, yogurt, meat and fish

14

Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

True
False

false

15

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?

-eating a large meal
-shivering
-dilation of cutaneous blood vessels
-enhanced thyroxine release

dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

16

The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

True
False

true

17
card image

Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?

-nuclear membrane
-outer mitochondrial membrane
-inner mitochondrial membrane
-plasma membrane

inner mitochondrial membrane

18

Which of the following is a characteristic of the electron transport chain (ETC)?

The electron transport chain is an anaerobic pathway.
The final electron acceptor in the ETC is water.
NADH is a product of the ETC.
The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

19

Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.

-is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
-helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
-helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
-enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

20

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

-starvation period
-postabsorptive state
-absorptive state
-period when the metabolic rate is lowest

absorptive state

21

The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

True
False

false

22

The "proton pumps" indicated in the figure are physically associated with ______.

-the Krebs cycle
-the ATP synthase
-the electron transport chain
-glycolysis

the electron transport chain

23

Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.

True
False

False

24

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

-electrolytes
-minerals
-carbohydrates
-vitamins

vitamins

25

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.

-glycerol
-proteins
-fatty acids
-glucose

glucose

26

The movement of H+ through the ATP synthase is best described as an example of_______?

-facilitated diffusion

-simple diffusion

-active transport

-hydrolysis

facilitate diffusion

27

Oxygen is consumed during which of the lettered processes?

D and E

A

C

E, F, and G

B

c

28

Which of the following events is NOT depicted in the figure?

generation of an electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane

transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to a coenzyme

formation of a high energy phosphate-phosphate bond

transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to a coenzyme

29

Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions ______.

from matrix to cytoplasm

from matrix to intermembrane space

from intermembrane space to cytoplasm

from cytoplasm to matrix

from the marix to the intermembrane space

30

Which of the following is NOT an end product of the kreb cycle?

-CO2

-FADH2

-NADH

-citric acid

citric acid

31

Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis

true

false

false

32

The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.

true

33

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.

glucose

acetyl CoA

protein

fat

glucose

34

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

-most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

-vitamins provide protection against the common cold

-all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

-very few foods contain vitamins

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

35

Prostaglandins play a role in ________.

-skeletal muscle contraction

-control of blood volume

-control of blood pressure

-non-inflammatory responses

control of blood pressure

36

Select the correct statement about proteins.

-Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

-Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.

-Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.

-Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

37

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.

true

false

false

38

The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.

true

false

true

39

Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to __________ primarily in the __________.

urea; kidney

ketones; liver

ketones; kidney

urea; liver

urea, liver

40

The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to __________.

maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range

build fat reserves

form glycogen

break down glucose in the liver

maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range

41

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.

fat utilization

lipogenesis

lipolysis

gluconeogenesis

lipolysis

42

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.

glycogen

lactic acid

fatty acids

amino acids

fatty acids