Human Anatomy & Physiology: AP 2 final part 4 Flashcards


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1

1) Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

A) carbohydrate structure

B) composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

C) three binding sites per antibody monomer

D) incapable of being transferred from one person to another

B) composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

2

2) Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

A) exposure to an antigen

B) infusion of weakened viruses

C) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

D) booster shot of vaccine

C) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

3

3) Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

A) cytotoxic
B) antigenic
C) helper
D) regulatory

B) antigenic

4

4) B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

A) thymus
B) spleen
C) bone marrow
D) lymph nodes

C) bone marrow

5

5) Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

A) prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue

B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

C) disposes of cellular debris and pathogens

D) sets the stage for repair processes

B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

6

6) The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

A) vasodilation
B) vasoconstriction
C) phagocyte mobilization
D) production of complement and interferon

A) vasodilation

7

7) The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.

A) disulfide
B) hydrogen
C) amino acid
D) sodium

A) disulfide

8

8) In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

A) antigen
B) interferon
C) antibody
D) complement

A) antigen

9

9) Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

A) NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

B) NK cells are present in the blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.

C) NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens.

D) NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells.

A) NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

10

10) The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.

A) diapedesis
B) chemotaxis
C) margination
D) phagocytosis

B) chemotaxis

11

11) Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.

A) haptens
B) antibodies
C) ions
D) reagins

A) haptens

12

12) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

A) adherence, digestion, killing, ingestion, chemotaxis
B) chemotaxis, ingestion, digestion, adherence, killing
C) chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
D) ingestion, adherence, chemotaxis, digestion, killing

C) chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

13

13) The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.

A) regulatory cells
B) helper cells
C) cytotoxic cells
D) plasma cells

C) cytotoxic cells

14

14) Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

A) intracellular pathogens that reside within host cells
B) some cancer cells
C) foreign tissue transplants
D) pathogens in the CNS

D) pathogens in the CNS

15

15) ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

A) Basophils
B) Eosinophils
C) Macrophages
D) B cells

C) Macrophages

16

16) Interferons ________.

A) are virus-specific, so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus

B) act by increasing the rate of cell division

C) interfere with viral replication within cells

D) are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold

C) interfere with viral replication within cells

17

17) ________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

A) The type of antigen
B) Memory cell production
C) Enzymes present at the time of the invasion
D) Our genes

D) Our genes

18

18) Regulatory T cells ________.

A) release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells

B) decrease their activity as antigenic stimulus decreases

C) may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

D) are the most thoroughly understood T cells

C) may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

19

19) Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

A) Isografts are between identical twins.

B) Allografts are between different species.

C) Xenografts are between individuals of the same species.

D) Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals.

A) Isografts are between identical twins.

20

20) Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

A) Antigens exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity.

B) Antigens only come from microbes.

C) The parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants.

D) Antigens can include proteins, nucleic acids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and certain large polysaccharides.

B) Antigens only come from microbes.

21

21) ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

A) Cytokines
B) Perforins
C) Interleukin 1 proteins
D) Interleukin 2 proteins

A) Cytokines

22

22) Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

A) keratin
B) cilia
C) gastric juice
D) phagocytes

D) phagocytes

23

23) Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

A) small molecules
B) reactivity with an antibody
C) contain many repeating chemical units
D) inhibit production of antibodies

B) reactivity with an antibody

24

24) B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

A) reducing its size

B) immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies

C) forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell

D) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

D) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

25

25) Graft rejection may be caused by ________.

A) using a xenograft
B) use of immunosuppressive drugs
C) treatment with antilymphocyte serum
D) total body irradiation

A) using a xenograft

26

26) Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

A) natural killer cells
B) T lymphocytes
C) B lymphocytes
D) pinocytosis

A) natural killer cells

27

27) Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

A) diapedesis
B) agglutination
C) opsonization
D) chemotaxis

C) opsonization

28

28) Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

A) It is antigen-specific.
B) It is systemic.
C) It has memory.
D) It is specific for a given organ.

D) It is specific for a given organ.

29

29) Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.

A) juvenile diabetes
B) hepatitis
C) rabies
D) pregnancy

A) juvenile diabetes

30

30) Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

A) immune complex hypersensitivity
B) anaphylaxis
C) cytotoxic hypersensitivity
D) allergic contact dermatitis

D) allergic contact dermatitis

31

31) Innate immune system defenses include ________.

A) B cells
B) T cells
C) plasma cells
D) phagocytosis

D) phagocytosis

32

32) Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?

A) Haptens lack immunogenicity unless attached to protein carriers.

B) Class 1 MHC molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells.

C) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

D) MHC proteins are the cell’s identity markers.

C) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

33

33) Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

A) diapedesis, during which cells line up against the capillary wall

B) margination, which is the process of white cell movement through the walls of capillaries into injured tissues

C) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

D) monocytes as the most active phagocyte

C) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

34

34) Fever ________.

A) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous

B) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy

C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

D) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication

C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

35

35) Immunocompetence ________.

A) occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system

B) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

C) prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader

D) requires exposure to an antigen

B) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

36

36) Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."

A) The development of tolerance is specific to B cells only.

B) Neutrophils capable of binding to self-antigens are chemically inactivated.

C) Tolerance to self is due to the action of foreign antigens that inactivate the immune response to one's own tissues.

D) Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

D) Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

37

37) Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

A) Immunological memory is established by passive immunization.

B) A vaccination is an example of the introduction of passive immunity into the body.

C) The antibodies utilized in active immunity are acquired from another organism.

D) Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

D) Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

38

38) Cytotoxic T cells ________.

A) are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

B) require the double recognition signal of I MHC plus II MHC on the target cell in order to function

C) function mainly to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations

D) self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized

A) are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

39

39) Helper T cells ________.

A) bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin

B) often function to decrease the immune response

C) release B7 proteins

D) function in the adaptive immune system activation

D) function in the adaptive immune system activation

40

40) Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

A) Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disease is an acquired condition.

B) The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

C) Hodgkin's disease is a hereditary immunodeficiency found in children.

D) The most common form of immunodeficiency is graft-versus-host (GVH) disease.

B) The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

41

41) Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

A) They are also called type IV hypersensitivities.

B) They are are adaptive immune responses to disease organisms.

C) They include allergic contact dermatitis.

D) They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

D) They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

42

42) Delayed hypersensitivities ________.

A) are mediated by B cells

B) include allergic contact dermatitis

C) include anaphylactic shock, a systemic vasodilation that results in inadequate blood delivery to all tissues

D) do not involve T cells

B) include allergic contact dermatitis

43

43) Natural killer (NK) cells ________.

A) are also called cytotoxic T cells
B) are a type of phagocyte
C) are cells of the adaptive immune system
D) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

D) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

44

44) Select the correct statement about antigens.

A) "Self-antigens" is another name for incomplete antigens.

B) The largest type of antigen is called a hapten.

C) Only small antigens exhibit reactivity.

D) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

D) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

45

45) Clonal selection of B cells ________.

A) occurs during fetal development
B) results in the formation of plasma cells
C) cannot occur in the presence of antigens
D) only occurs in the secondary immune response

B) results in the formation of plasma cells

46

46) The primary immune response ________.

A) occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response

B) occurs when memory cells are stimulated

C) is another name for immunological memory

D) has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

D) has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

47

47) Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

A) Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."

B) Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.

C) Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

D) The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG.

C) Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

48

48) Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

A) B cell
B) helper T cell
C) cytotoxic T cell
D) APC

B) helper T cell

49

49) Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

A) multiple sclerosis
B) type II diabetes
C) systemic lupus erythematosus
D) glomerulonephritis

B) type II diabetes

50

50) Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

A) exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system

B) a second exposure to an allergen

C) mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously present

D) cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens

B) a second exposure to an allergen

51

51) Select the correct statement about complement.

A) An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

B) Complement can be activated through three pathways: classical, secondary, and alternate.

C) The membrane attack complex consists of complement proteins C3a through C5.

D) Complement proteins C1 through C9 act exclusively in the classical pathway.

A) An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

52

52) Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

A) IgD contains 4 binding sites.
B) IgA contains 6 binding sites.
C) IgG contains 6 binding sites.
D) IgM contains 10 binding sites

D) IgM contains 10 binding sites

53

53) Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

A) binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms

B) cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

C) linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution

D) targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis

B) cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

54

54) Which statement is true about T cells?

A) They usually directly recognize antigens, which then activates a subpopulation of killer cells.

B) Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

C) Once activated, they cannot secrete cytokines.

D) They will develop into cytotoxic T cells if antigen is complexed with class II MHC proteins.

B) Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

55

55) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.

A) cytokines
B) histamine
C) prostaglandins
D) complement

A) cytokines

56

56) Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

A) neutralizing antigen
B) activating cytokines
C) enhancing phagocytosis
D) agglutinating and precipitating antigen

B) activating cytokines

57

57) What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

B) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria

C) activates the complement mechanism

D) activates the inflammatory process

A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

58

58) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

A) The lymphoid organs where lymphocytes become immunocompetent are called primary lymph organs. All other lymphoid organs are referred to as secondary lymphoid organs.

B) It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

C) After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

D) T cells and B cells become fully immunocompetent when they bind with recognized antigens.

C) After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

59

1) Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A) lymph follicles
B) lymph nodes
C) axillary nodes
D) cisterna chyli

B) lymph nodes

60

2) Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A) pancreas
B) spleen
C) tonsils
D) Peyer's patches of the intestine

A) pancreas

61

3) The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.

A) islets of Langerhans
B) Peyer's patches
C) rugae
D) villi

B) Peyer's patches

62

4) Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.

A) the pumping action of the heart

B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

C) contraction of the vessels themselves

D) two-way valves

B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

63

5) The thymus is most active during ________.

A) fetal development
B) childhood
C) middle age
D) old age

B) childhood

64

6) Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A) lumbar trunk
B) thoracic duct
C) right lymphatic duct
D) cisterna chyl

C) right lymphatic duct

65

7) What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?

A) The size of the thymus increases continuously from birth to death.

B) The size of the thymus decreases continuously from birth to death.

C) The thymus is not affected by age.

D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

66

8) The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A) more permeable than blood capillaries
B) less permeable than blood capillaries
C) as permeable as blood capillaries
D) completely impermeable

A) more permeable than blood capillaries

67

9) Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A) T lymphocytes
B) plasma cells
C) lymph nodes
D) medullary cords

B) plasma cells

68

10) Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A) efferent lymphatic vessels
B) afferent lymphatic vessels
C) the cortical sinus
D) the subscapular sinus

A) efferent lymphatic vessels

69

11) Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A) basophils
B) lymphocytes
C) macrophages
D) monocytes

B) lymphocytes

70

12) Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A) removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood

B) forming crypts that trap bacteria

C) storage of blood platelets

D) storage of iron

B) forming crypts that trap bacteria

71

13) When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A) shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

B) severe localized edema distal to the blockage

C) increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage

D) abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region

B) severe localized edema distal to the blockage

72

14) Select the correct statement about lymph transport.
A) Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.

B) Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.

C) Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.

D) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

73

15) Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

A) The two main types are T cells and macrophages.

B) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

C) T cells are the precursors of B cells.

D) T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.

B) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

74

16) Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

B) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.

C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

D) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.

C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

75

17) Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A) tonsil
B) thymus
C) Peyer's patch
D) appendix

A) tonsil

76

18) Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A) tonsil
B) thymus
C) Peyer's patch
D) appendix

B) thymus

77

19) Peyer's patches are found in the ________.

A) duodenum of the small intestine
B) ileum of the small intestine
C) large intestine
D) jejunum of the small intestine

B) ileum of the small intestine

78

20) Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?

A) bones and teeth
B) bone marrow
C) CNS
D) digestive organs

D) digestive organs

79

21) What is a bubo?

A) a wall in a lymph node
B) a lobe of the spleen
C) an infected Peyer's patch
D) an infected lymph node

D) an infected lymph node

80

22) The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A) have lymphocytes
B) produce hormones
C) have a cortex and medulla
D) directly fight antigens

D) directly fight antigens

81

23) Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A) inguinal region
B) cervical region
C) axillary region
D) lower extremities

D) lower extremities

82

24) Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A) Peyer's patches
B) palatine tonsils
C) lingual tonsils
D) islets of Langerhans

D) islets of Langerhans

83

25) Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A) skeletal muscle contraction
B) breathing
C) valves in lymph vessel walls
D) smooth muscle contraction

D) smooth muscle contraction

84

26) The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A) lingual tonsils
B) palatine tonsils
C) pharyngeal tonsils
D) Peyer's tonsils

A) lingual tonsils

85

27) Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

A) water
B) plasma proteins
C) red blood cells
D) ions

C) red blood cells

86

28) A sentinel node is ________.

A) a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria

B) the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks

C) a small node in the spleen

D) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

D) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

87

29) Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A) house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes

B) house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils

C) furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages

D) A and C

D) A and C

88

30) Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A) draining excess interstitial fluid
B) carrying out immune responses
C) transporting dietary fats
D) transporting respiratory gases

D) transporting respiratory gases

89

31) Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

A) act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
B) produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
C) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
D) serve as antigen surveillance areas

C) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid