89 notecards = 23 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
B) composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
2) Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
C) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
3) Which of the following is not a type of T cell?
4) B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
C) bone marrow
5) Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
6) The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
7) The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.
8) In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
9) Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
A) NK cells are a type of neutrophil.
10) The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
11) Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
12) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
C) chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
13) The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.
C) cytotoxic cells
14) Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?
D) pathogens in the CNS
15) ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.
16) Interferons ________.
C) interfere with viral replication within cells
17) ________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
D) Our genes
18) Regulatory T cells ________.
C) may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
19) Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
A) Isografts are between identical twins.
20) Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?
B) Antigens only come from microbes.
21) ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
22) Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
23) Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
B) reactivity with an antibody
24) B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.
D) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
25) Graft rejection may be caused by ________.
A) using a xenograft
26) Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.
A) natural killer cells
27) Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
28) Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
D) It is specific for a given organ.
29) Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.
A) juvenile diabetes
30) Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
D) allergic contact dermatitis
31) Innate immune system defenses include ________.
32) Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
C) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.
33) Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.
C) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
34) Fever ________.
C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
35) Immunocompetence ________.
B) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
36) Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."
D) Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
37) Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
D) Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
38) Cytotoxic T cells ________.
A) are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
39) Helper T cells ________.
D) function in the adaptive immune system activation
40) Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
B) The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.
41) Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
D) They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.
42) Delayed hypersensitivities ________.
B) include allergic contact dermatitis
43) Natural killer (NK) cells ________.
D) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
44) Select the correct statement about antigens.
D) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
45) Clonal selection of B cells ________.
B) results in the formation of plasma cells
46) The primary immune response ________.
D) has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
47) Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
C) Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
48) Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
B) helper T cell
49) Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
B) type II diabetes
50) Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
B) a second exposure to an allergen
51) Select the correct statement about complement.
A) An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.
52) Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?
D) IgM contains 10 binding sites
53) Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.
B) cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
54) Which statement is true about T cells?
B) Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
55) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
56) Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?
B) activating cytokines
57) What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
58) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
C) After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.
1) Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.
B) lymph nodes
2) Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
3) The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.
B) Peyer's patches
4) Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
5) The thymus is most active during ________.
6) Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
C) right lymphatic duct
7) What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.
8) The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
A) more permeable than blood capillaries
9) Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
B) plasma cells
10) Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
A) efferent lymphatic vessels
11) Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
12) Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.
B) forming crypts that trap bacteria
13) When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.
B) severe localized edema distal to the blockage
14) Select the correct statement about lymph transport.
D) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
15) Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.
B) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
16) Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.
C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
17) Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
18) Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
19) Peyer's patches are found in the ________.
B) ileum of the small intestine
20) Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?
D) digestive organs
21) What is a bubo?
D) an infected lymph node
22) The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:
D) directly fight antigens
23) Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.
D) lower extremities
24) Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.
D) islets of Langerhans
25) Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?
D) smooth muscle contraction
26) The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
A) lingual tonsils
27) Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
C) red blood cells
28) A sentinel node is ________.
D) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
29) Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?
D) A and C
30) Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
D) transporting respiratory gases
31) Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?
C) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid