Activity 2: Studying the Histologic Structure of Selected Digestive System Organs

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1

The Stomach

The Stomach

2

How does the extra oblique layer of smooth muscle found in the stomach correlate with the stomach's churning movements? (Hint: 3 functions and what do they do? )

1. Churn food

2. Mix food

3. Pummel food

All above helps tot physically reduce the food to smaller fragments.

3

The chief cells produce what?

Produces pepsinogen

4

The parietal cells secret what?

HCl

5

Enteroendocrine cells release what?

Hormones

6

Gastroesophageal junction:

1. Describe the epithelium found in the esophagus and the beginning of the stomach (right after the gastroesophageal junction).

2. What is the functional importance of the epithelial differences seen in the esophagus and the stomach?

1. Stratified squamous epithelium is found in the esophagus, and simple columnar epithelium is found in the stomach (right after the gastroesophageal junction).

2. Stratified squamous epithelium=protection, Simple columnar epithelium=absorption

7
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: organ)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Stomach wall

8
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: organ)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Stomach wall

9
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: organ)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Stomach wall

10
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: organ)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Stomach wall

11
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: junction)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Gastroesophageal junction

12

The Small Intestine

The Small Intestine

13

The small intestine extends from what sphincter to what valve?

Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

14

The small intestine is suspended by what double-layered peritoneum and from what abdominal wall?

Suspended by the mesentery from the posterior abdominal wall

15

What are the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine?

1. Duodenum

2. Jejunum

3. ileum

16

The duodenum extends from what sphincter and curves around the head of what organ?

Extends from the pyloric sphincter and curves around the head of the pancreas

17

The jejunum is continuous with what subdivision of the small intestine?

Duodenum

18

Most of the jejunum occupies what region of the abdominal cavity?

The umbilical region of the abdominal cavity

19

The ileum makes up what portion of the small intestine?

Terminal portion of the small intestine

20

The ileum joins the large intestine at what valve?

Joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve

21

The major portion of the ileum lies in what region of the abdominal cavity?

Hypogastric region of the abdominal cavity

22

What 2 enzymes complete digestion in the small intestine?

1. Brush border enzymes

2. Pancreatic enzymes

23

The brush border enzymes are what type of enzymes?

Hydrolytic enzymes

24

The brush border enzymes are bound to what structures of what epithelium?

Bound to the microvilli of the simple columnar epithelium of the stomach

25

How do pancreatic enzymes enter the stomach, and which specific subdivision of the small intestine do they enter through?

Enter by the main pancreatic duct and are ducted into the duodenum

26

Bile is formed in what organ?

Liver

27

How does bile enter the stomach, and which specific subdivision of the small intestine does it enter through?

Enter by the bile duct into the duodenum of the small intestine

28

At the duodenum, the pancreatic duct and the bile duct join to form what structure?

The hepato-pancreatic ampulla

29

The hepato-pancreatic ampulla empties into what lumen and through what structure?

Empties into the duodenal lumen through the major duodenal papilla

30

The major duodenal papilla is controlled by what valve?

The hepato-pancreatic sphincter

31

The hepato-pancreatic sphincter is what type of valve?

Muscle valve

32

Nearly all of what occurs in the small intestine?

Nutrient absorption

33

What 3 structural modifications increase the absorptive surface of the small intestine mucosa?

1. Microvilli

2. Villi

3. Circular folds

34

Microvilli are microscopic projections of the surface ____ of the ____.

Microscopic projections of the surface plasma membrane of the columnar epithelial cells of the mucosa.

35

Villi are ____ projections of what tunic?

Finger-like projections of the mucosa tunic

36

The circular folds are deep folds of what 2 layers?

1. Mucosa layer

2. Submucosa layer

37

What is the function of the circular folds of the small intestine?

Force chyme to spiral through the intestine, mixing it and slowing its progress

38

The 3 structural modifications that help with absorption (i.e. microvilli, villi, circular folds) of the small intestine decrease in frequency and size towards where?

Towards the end of the small intestine

39

What happens to any residue remaining undigested and unabsorbed food at the end of the small intestine? (Hint: enters what organ and through what valve?)

It enters the large intestine through the ileocecal valve

40

In contrast, while the 3 structural modifications that help with absorption decrease in frequency and size toward the end of the small intestine, what happens to the lymphoid tissue in the submucosa?

The lymphoid tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine increases along the length of the small intestine

41

The lymphoid tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine are also called what? (Hint: state common name as well)

Aggregated lymphoid nodules or Peyer's patches

42

The aggregated lymphoid nodules or Peyer's patches are very apparent in what subdivision of the small intestine?

The ileum

43
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide?

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Small intestine

44
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: What specific region of the organ?)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Dueodenum of small intestine

45
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: What specific region of the organ?)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Duodenum of small intestine

46
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: What specific region of the organ?)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Jejunum of small intestine

47
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: What specific region of the organ?)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Ileum of small intestine

48
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide? (Hint: What specific region of the organ?)

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Ileum of the small intestine

49
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. What feature of the alimentary canal is shown in this histology slide?

card image

1. Look at the picture.

2. Small intestine cutout