PSY 235 Flashcards


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Test 3
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1

1. Children between the ages of 6 and II years are within the developmental stage referred to as ______.
A) infancy
B) early childhood
c). middle childhood
D) adolescence

C)

2

The health habits that children develop during the middle childhood years are _____.

A) unrelated to their health in adolescence and adulthood

B) related to their health in adolescence, but unrelated to their health in adulthood

C) unrelated to their health in adolescence, but related to their health in adulthood

D) related to their health in adolescence and adulthood

D)

3

3. Physical activity can benefit children in all of the following ways EXCEPT by improving _____.

A) overall physical health

B) academic achievement

C) mood and energy

D) oral health practices

D)

4

4. The idea that human thoughts are affected by body health, comfort, position, and so on is a new concept called _____.

A) concrete operations

B) metacognition

C) embodied cognition

D) automatization

C)

5

5. Physical activity within schools has _____ over the years.

A) increased
B) decreased
C) hindered academic achievement
D) remained stable

B)

6

6. Research suggests that classrooms deprived of ______ are often considered harder to manage.
A) city life
B) tests
C) screen time
D) recess

D)

7

The ratio between a person's height and weight is expressed as ____.

A) HWP

B) BMW

C) APGAR

D) BMI

D)

8

8. Olivia's BMI is in the 76th percentile, which is associated with being ____.

A) underweight

B) nonnal weight

C) overweight

D) obese

B)

9

9. Childhood obesity is usually defined as a BMI above the ___ percentile.

A) 65th
B) 75th
C) 85th
D) 95th

D)

10

10. Obesity has increased because it is common for ____.

A) preschoolers to attend preschool
B) preschoolers to watch TV and drink soda
C) babies to be breast-fed
D) children to walk to school

B)

11

11. During middle childhood, children themselves contribute to weight gain by getting adults to do what they want, such as buying them candy or junk food. The ability of children to get adults to do what they want has been referred to as ____ power.

A) influence

B) demanding

C) child

D) pester

D)

12

12. Asthma is a disorder caused by _____ the airways.

A) inflammation of
B) enlargement of
C) destruction of
D) holes in

A)

13

13. Lindsay brought her 10-year-old son to see the doctor because he was having problems breathing. The doctor infomed Lindsay that her son had inflammation of the airways.Lindsay's son was diaylosed with ____.

A)y asthma

B) obesity

C) sleep apnea

D) diabetes

A)

14

14. Piaget believed that in middle childhood, children are in the cognitive period of ____ thought.

A) formal operational
B) preoperational
C) metacognitive
D) concrete operational

D)

15

A child is shown a large box and a small box. The large box contains a 5-pound weight and the small box contains a 10-pound weight. The child picks up the boxes and looks at them closely, and then is asked which weighs more. The child is no longer focused only on appearances, so he answers that the small box weighs more. Piaget would say that this child is in the ____ stage of cognitive development.

A) sensorimotor

B) preoperational

C) metacognitive

D) concrete operational

D)

16

16. According to Piaget, which ability do children gain during middle childhood?

A) static reasoning
B) abstract reasoning
C) logic
D) egocentrism

C)

17

With concrete operational thought, children can _____.

A) think logically about visible, tangible things

B) think logically about abstract ideas

C) consistently make good decisions

D) solve most problems on their own

A)

18

18. The logical principle that allows objects to be grouped according to some characteristic that they share is called _____.

A) concrete thought
B) automatization
C) classification
D) reversibility

C)

19

19. Vygotsky viewed ____ as being crucial to children's development of skills and knowledge.
instruction
B) independence
C) exploration
D) passive learning

A)

20

Dr. Smith is conducting a study to determine what 9-year-olds know. He believes that the 9-year-olds will advance in knowledge based on instructions. Dr. Smith's belief is based on ______.

A) the information-processing perspective

B) Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development

D) Gardner's theory of intellectual development

C)

21

21. According to Vygotsky's sociocultural framework, every experience after teaches individuals something.

A) birth

B) childhood

C) adolescence

D) adulthood

A)

22

The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others is referred to as ____.

A) selective attention

B) divided attention

C) automatization

D) reaction time

C)

23

23. The information-processing theory was inspired by the knowledge of how ____ function.

A) animals' brains
B) high-level businesses
C) computers
D) athletic teams

C)

24

The component of the information-processing system in which current, conscious mental activity occurs is the _____.

4.) working memory
B) long-term memory
C) sensory memory
D) icon memory

A)

25

25. Tony walked next door to José's house so they could go to school together. When José saw Tony's notebook in his backpack, he rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook, which contained his homework. José's sensation upon seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which triggered José's ____.

A) sensory memory

B) working memory

C) long-tern memory

D) knowledge base

B)

26

Crucial to long-term memory is _____.

A) storage
B) retrieval
c) storage and retrieval
D) neither storage nor retrieval

C)

27

27. Metacognition is ____.

A) the process of putting information into long-term memory
B) the process of recalling information
C) thinking about thinking
D) the ability to process multiple stimuli

C)

28

28. Control processes improve with _____.

A) fame and wealth
B) income and status
C) age and experience
D) personal motivation and belief

C)

29

29. The Common Core is a(n) ______ that was developed by experts and intended for nationwide use in response to doubts about state-level assessments.
A) graduation exam
B) law that requires frequent testing to monitor student achievement
C) set of specific standards by subject and grade level
D) amount of money awarded by the government for an individual child's education

C)

30

Advocates argue that _____ increase competition between public and private schools.

A) standardized tests

B) vouchers

C) parents

D) Common Core standards

B)

31

31. The average IQ is a score of _____.

A) 70

B) 85

C) 100

D) 1 15

C)

32

Which of the following is true of treatment for ADHD?

A) Family training is a necessary part of treatment.

B) No treatments currently exist.

C) Medication is the only option.

D) Parents and teachers do not need to be involved.

A)

33

33. Children's steady growth, brain maturation, and intellectual advances make middle childhood a time for more ____.

A) conservation

B) peer values

C) independence

D) egocentrism

D)

34

34. What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?
A) autonomy versus shame and doubt
B) industry versus inferiority
C) trust versus mistrust
D) integrity versus incompetence

B)

35

35. Sara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Sara is developing a healthy sense of ____ through these tasks.

A) industry
B) self-control
C) autonomy
D) egocentrism

A)

36

36. According to Erikson's theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either _____.

A) suppressed or superior

B) industrious or inferior

C) competent or awkward

D) intelligent or stupid

B)

37

37. According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Jessica is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a view of herself as ______.

A) emotionally mature

B) industrious

C) inept

D) latent

B)

38

38. The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and yet emerges from those experiences unscathed is said to be _____.

A) buoyant
B) resilient
C) parasympathetic
D) reliable

B)

39

Family function refers to ____.

A) how a family cares for its members

B) the legal and genetic relationships of people in a household

C) how the family's house is constructed

D) how the various generations interact

A)

40

40. The most common type of family for children in the United States is the _____.

A) extended family

B) single-parent family

C) nuclear family

D) blended family

C)

41

41. Tony has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natalia, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a _____.

A) polygamous family

B) nuclear family

C) stepparent family

D) traditional family

C)

42

42. A family that consists of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and women is a(n)_____.

A) blended family
B) adoptive family
C) extended family
D) polygamous family

D)

43

43. What factors generally determine whether a child is well liked by his or her peers?

A) age and gender

B) culture and race

C) cohort and SES

D) culture and cohort

D)

44

44. Girls who bully typically _____.

A) use threats of force
B) use words to attack
C) are larger than average in size
D) have older sisters who are aggressive

B)

45

Most bullies pick on

A) members of the opposite sex

B) members of their own sex

C) people they don't know well

D) their little brothers and sisters

B)

46

46. There are many approaches to addressing the issue of bullying. Research indicates the one effective approach is ____.

A) to have a zero-tolerance policy at school
B) talking to parents and teachers, but not to students, about bullying
C) grouping bullies together in the same classroom to isolate the problem
D) changing the school culture as a whole

D)

47

47. Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of _____ in his description of the stages of moral development.

A) Sigmund Freud
B) Jean Piaget
C) Erik Erikson
D) Carol Gilligan

B)

48

48. Which is a stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory?

A) postconventional
B) unconventional
C) deconventional
D) subconventional

A)

49

49. Preconventional morality involves

A) the careful consideration of all options

B) an emphasis on laws and social order

C) seeking pleasure and avoiding pain

D) trying to gain the approval of others

C)

50

50. Conventional morality involves

A) the careful consideration of all options
B) following what parents, teachers, and peers do
C) seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
D) trying to take care of one's own needs

B)