The Female Reproductive System

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FEMALE
updated 5 years ago by alesalinas1
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1

Female reproductive system is a more complex system than __________. Not only must she produce _________, but her body must prepare to nurture a ___________ _______ for approximately _________ months.

  • male
  • gametes
  • developing fetus
  • 9 months
2
  • the _________ are the female gonads, as __________ are for male
  • These are a ______ of gametes, ______ -shaped glands containing approximately __________ primordial follicles.
  • ovaries
  • testis
  • 400,000 primordial follicles
3
  • Ovaries are __________
  • and __________ Sex Organs
  • Ovaries are suspended by several ___________ called ____________ ligaments.
  • gonads
  • Primary
  • ligaments
  • Broad Ligaments
4

The suspensory ligaments and mesovarium are part of the _______ _____________, a _________ fold that "tents" over the uterus and support :

3 organs __________, ____________ and ___________.

  • Broad ligaments
  • peritoneal fold
  • the uterine tubes,
  • uterus and
  • vagina
5
card image
  • Ovaries produce haploid ________ by ___________
  • Ova is the female _____________
  • Ova is the one to be _________ by male gamete _______
  • Ova
  • Oogenesis
  • gamete
  • fertilized
  • spermatozoid
6
  • Both ovaries are lined by ___________ _________, which consists of:
    • Simple __________ epithelium that covers the ovary.
    • Bellow we find the _______ __________ which is a capsule of collagenous CT.
  • Germinal Epithelium
  • cuboidal
  • tunica albuginea
7
  • ___________ is the outer cortex, and the inner medulla
  • The outer cortex region contain the _____ _____
card image
  • Stroma
  • Ovarian follicles
8

Grafian follicles, now called _________ __________ is a mature ________ and its surrounding tissue secrete ______________

  • Vesicular Follicle
  • Ovum
  • Estrogen
9

Corpus __________ produces __________ and estrogen

  • Corpus Luteum
  • progesterone
10

Ova stages start with :

  1. Oocyte = ________, is a
  2. Secondary __________ is the last section of maturation of the oocyte.
card image
  1. Oocyte (egg) is an immature egg encased by one or more layers of very different cells called Follicle cells
    • Oocyte are the product from meiosis of dormant cells.
  2. oocyte
11

3.- Secondary oocyte extend from the deepest part of the ovarian cortex and bulges from the surface of the ovary, and its oocyte sits proudly on a stalk of granulosa cells at one side of the antrum to be ovulated, This is called ________

  • Ovulation
12

After ovulation, the ruptured follicle is transformed into a very different looking glandular structure called __________ ____________ (yellow body), which eventually degenerates. During all this process, it is going to release ____________ _________

  • Corpus Luteum
  • progesteron
  • estrogen
13

The Uterine Tubes, also called _________ tubes or __________ form the initial part of the female duct system where mature ______ travel to the Uterus.

  • Fallopian tubes
  • oviducts
  • ovum
14

1- The mature ova once released is caught by a structure called ___________ which is a ______ -shaped structure that sweep over the surface of the ___________ in search of the ovulated mature ______.

  • fimbriae
  • finger
  • ovaries
  • ovum
15

2-_____________ is the opening into the fallopian tube

Infundibulum

16

The Fallopian Tube is :

  • approx. _____ long.
  • Homologous to the________ ______ of the male.
  • Fallopian tubes conveys the _______, to the __________
  • 4"
  • Ductus Deferens
  • Ovum
  • Uterus
17
  • Fallopian tube is lined with:
    • _________ cells which beat and carry the ovum toward the uterus.
    • It takes about _____ days.
  • Ciliated
  • 3
18

Uterus, also called the ________, _____ -shaped, is the site of _________________ and ______________ of a fetus.

  • the womb
  • Implantation
  • development
19

There are 3 basic layers of the uterus:

card image
  1. Perimetrium
  2. Myometrium
  3. Endometrium
20

1- Perimetrium

  • a serous membrane (visceral peritoneum)
  • IT BECOMES the Broad Ligament
21

2- Myometrium

  • 3 layers of smooth muscle
  • 75% of the thickness of the uterus
22

3- Endometrium

card image
  • The nutritive inner lining which is divided in
    • Stratum Functionalis
    • Stratum Basales
23

Stratus Functionalis

is the one that shed during menstruation

24

Stratus Basales

is permanent and forms the site of menstruation, implantation of a zygote, and development of the fetus during pregnancy.

25

_____________ is the top dome shaped portion of the uterus

Fundus

26

____________ is the major and main portion at the center of the uterus

The Body

27

______________ is the lower neck portion of the uterus , and projects to the vagina (inferiorly)

The cervix

28

__________ os is between the uterine cavity and the cervical cavity

card image

Internal Os

29

__________ os is where the cervix opens into the vagina

External Os

30

____________ is the female copulatory organ, which is:

  • shape _________
  • Tissue _________
  • serves as a ______________ for menstrual flow, copulation and ???

Vagina

  • Tubular
  • fibromuscular organ
  • passageway
31

Vagina is lined with :

  • ___________

Vagina produces and _________ mucus to

  • kill ________ and to act as a _____________
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • acidic mucus
  • bacteria
  • lubricant
32

Vagina is

  • about _____ long.
  • contain _________ which are a series of transverse folds.
  • 4"
  • Rugae
33
  • The vagina orifice is __________ opening to the vagina
  • the ______________ is a membrane sheet of tissue which may form a border around the orifice.
  • exterior
  • Hymen
34

_____________ is the external genetalia of the female; it includes:

Vullva

  • Labium Majora
  • Labium Minora
  • The clitoris
  • Anus
35

______________ is an elevation of adipose tissue which cushions the pubic _________ during sexual intercourse.

  • Mons Pubis
  • pubic symphysis
36

_________ _________ are two large longitudinal folds of skin; they are homologous to the ____________ in the male.

Labium _________ contain _________, ______ and ___

  • The Labium Majora
  • scrotum
  • Majora
  • adipose
  • sweat glands
  • oil glands
37

________ _________ are two smaller folds of skin medial to the labia __________.

They contain many _____ glands for ___________ during sexual intercourse.

  • Labia minora
  • majora
  • oil
  • lubrication
38

______________ is a small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue. It is covered by a prepuce and is homologous to the _____________ of the male.

  • The clitoris
  • penis
39

_____________ _____ are modified sweat glands that produce milk.

  • Mammary Glands
40

Mammary Glands contain about ___ to ___ lobes or compartments, each of which is divided into several smaller compartments called __________.

card image
  • 15 to 20
  • Lobules
41

The lobules contain milk-secretion glands called ______

alvioli

42

The alveoli drain milk into a series of ducts which open onto the surface of the ________ which is the pigmented projection located in the middle of a circular pigmented area called the _____________.

  • niple
  • areola
43

Ovarian Cycle is the ___________ events associated with the maturation of an _________.

  • monthly
  • ovum
44

GnRF means

Gonadotropin Releasing Factor

45

Gonadotropin Releasing Factor (GnRF) originates from __

Gonadotropin RF regulates ________________

Gonadotropin RF stimulates _________________

  • Hypothalamus
  • both cycles (menstrual and ovarian)
  • the release of FSH and LH from the adenohypophysis
46

FSH stands for

Follicule Stimulated Hormone

47

LH stands for

Leutenizing Hormone

48

FSH is a hormone that __________ the development of ovarian follicular cells and stimulating them the ________ of estrogen

  • Stimulates
  • Secretion
49

LH is a hormone that

  • stimulates maturation of the __________,
  • brings about __________,
  • stimulates production of ________ and _________
  • stimulate production of _____ (pubis symphysis cartilage)
  • follicles
  • ovulation
  • estrogen and progesteron
  • relaxin
50

Estrogen is responsible for the development and maintenance of :

___________________________________

  1. Female reproductive structures
  2. secondary sex characteristics
  3. the breast
  4. endometrial lining of the uterus (stimulates Endometrial built up).
  5. control fluid and electrolyte balance
  6. increases protein anabolism (building)
51

Estrogen is ___________ to testosterone

analogous

52

The major source of Estrogen are:

  • ovaries
  • developing follicle
  • corpus luteum
53

The stimulus for release of estrogen comes from

FSH (and LH)

54

___________- is a placental hormon that relaxes pubis symphysis and aids in the dilatation of the cervix

Relaxin

55
  • The menstrual cycle start between the day____________ with an average of ____ days in its process.
  • Menstruation discharges monthly about ____ to ___ ml of ________, _______, ______ and ________
  • 24 to 35
  • 28
  • Fluid tissue
  • blood
  • mucus
  • Epithelial cells from endothelium
56
  • Menstruation is cause by a sudden drop in __________ and __________ levels.
  • Last for about _____ days
  • Estrogen
  • progesteron
  • 5
57

Stratus ________ degenerates, the uterine gland discharge their contests and ___________.

  • Functionalis
  • collapse
58

The flow of menstruation is from the _______, ______, ______ and __________ found in the stratum _________.

  • Uterine cavity
  • cervix to the
  • vagina and
  • exterior
  • functionalis
59

Menstruation last about ____ days until ONLY the stratum __________ is left.

  • 5
  • basale
60

Ovulation cycle start on day ____ of ____, when __________ cycle is Starting. This process stimulates the Hypothalamus to produce _________________________, which stimulates ___________ pituitary to release hormones ________ and _________.

  • 1 of 28 approx.
  • menstruation
  • GnRF (gonadotropin Releasing factor)
  • Anterior
  • FSH and LH
61
  • Before day 1, primordial follicles became __________ follicles which were chosen from a set to start developing
  • _____ hormone is released by anterior pituitary to stimulate the growth of the follicle to be ovulated.
  • Primary Follicle
  • FSH
62

After day __-___ (during the menstrual cycle) the follicles have developed into __________ follicle, which contain ___________ cells and fluid called ______________ fluid.

  • 4-5
  • Secondary follicle
  • Follicular Cells
  • Follicular Fluid
63

Follicular fluid forces the ovum to move to ____________ of the ____________

  • the side
  • follicle
64

Levels of ___________ and ___________ are raised during secondary follicular phase.

Only _____ follicle will mature, the rest will degenerate and undergo _________________.

  • estrogen and FSH
  • one
  • apoptosis
65

Pre- ovulatory phase happen between the end of menstruation and __________; and last from day ____ to day ____

  • ovulation
  • 6
  • 13
66

____ and ____ hormones from the pituitary work together to stimulate the follicles cells to produce __________.

This causes the ___________ lining from Uterus to built up, where glands develop and blood supply increases

This phase is also called _____________ in the uterus, due to the growth of the stratum ______________

  • FSH and LH
  • estrogen
  • Endometrial
  • Proliferative
  • Functionalis
67

Also between days 6 to 13 (pre-ovulatory) is called _____________ phase, due to follicles cells producing more ___________, which becomes the ________ hormone.

  • Follicular phase
  • estrogen
  • dominant hormone
68

Only ____ follicle will develop from about 20 follicles. It is going to be called _________ or _________ follicle.

During follicle developing levels of estrogen ___________.

  • 1
  • Grafian, or
  • Vesicular follicle
  • increases
69

FSH was the domain hormone during early pre-ovulatory phase, but now ____ is the dominant hormone close the time of _________ and is secreted in _________ concentrations

  • LH
  • ovulation
  • High
70

Ovulation occurs with the rupture of the _______ follicle, and the __________ of the ovum on day ________.

  • Grafian
  • release
  • 14
71

More increase of estrogen inhibits _________, therefore _________ is inhibited also.

  • GnRF
  • FSH
72

After ovulation, the Grafian follicle ___________, and becomes the Corpus ______________. where its cells enlarge and form the Corpus _____________.

  • collapses
  • hemorrhagicum
  • Luteal
73
  • Post-ovulatory phase is the time between _________ and ___________, and last from day ___ to _____ (in a ___ day cycle)
  • Ovulation
  • Mensus
  • 15
  • 28
  • 28
74

LH stimulates the development of Corpus _________, which secretes _____________ and ______________.

  • Luteal
  • estrogen
  • progesteron
75
  • Progesteron prepares the endometrium for _____________ of a __________ ovum.
  • It takes about ___ week for endometrium to be ready.
  • implantation
  • fertilized
  • 1
76

FSH secretion and LH secretion ________, and now it is time for the _______ _______ to produce estrogen and ____________

  • decrease
  • Corpus Luteal
  • Progesteron
77

If fertilization and implantation DO NOT occur, then the rising levels of estrogen and progesteron from the corpus luteum ________ GnRF and LH.

Corpus Luteum degenerates to become the corpus ________ and estrogen and progesteron levels ________

  • Inhibit
  • albicans
  • decrease
78

What HCG stands for.

HCG is a hormone developed by the __________

  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • Placenta
79

If fertilization and implantation DO NOT occur, then the Corpus Luteal is __________ for ___-____ weeks (for ______ and ________ hormones production).

HCG will be the one producing _________ and ________ hormones in greater amounts than Corpus Luteal.

  • maintain
  • 8 to 10 weeks
  • estrogen
  • progesterone
  • estrogen
  • progesterone
80

Pregnancy is supported by __________ hormone.

Progesterone also supports __________ and _______ development after pregnancy.

  • estrogen
  • pregnancy
  • breast
81

The first menstruation is called _________

Menarch

82

The last menstruation is called _________

Menopause

83

When menstrual cycles become less frequent is called

Climacteric

84
  • Climacteric occurs when women are around ____ to ____ years old.
  • It happens because ______ fail to respond to GnRF hormones, causing secondary effects physiological like : ______, _____, _________ _______, etc.
  • 40 to 50
  • ovaries
  • Hotflashes
  • sweating
  • emotional instability
85

________ __________ is a method used to prevent the union of a sperm with a mature ovum

Birth Control