Chapter 12: The CNS (Brain and Spinal Cord) Flashcards


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1

Development of the Neural Tube from Embryonic Ectoderm

4 steps:

1-neural plate forms from surface of ectoderm

2-the neural plate invaginates (folds), forming neural groove with neural folds

3-neural fold cells migrate to form neural crest, which forms much of the PNS and many other structures

4-the neural groove becomes the neural tube, which will form CNS structures

2

Embryonic Ectoderm-

Neural tube development: Step 1

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Embryonic Ectoderm-

Neural tube development: Step 2

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Embryonic Ectoderm-

Neural tube development: Step 3

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Embryonic Ectoderm-

Neural tube development: Step 4

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Embryonic Development of Human Brain

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Neural Tube contains what important thing?

a neural canal

has two sides: anterior and posterior

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Primary Brain Vesicles

Prosencephalon (forebrain)

Mesencephalon (midbrain)

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

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Secondary Brain Vesicles

1-Telencephalon (end brain)

2-Diencephalon (interbrain)

3-Mesencephalon (midbrain)

4-Metencephalon (after brain)

5-Myelencephalon (spinal brain)

10

Telencephalon's Adult Brain Structures

Cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres

(cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)

11

Telencephalon's Adult Neural Region

Lateral Ventricles

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Diencephalon's Adult Brain Structures

Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus), retina

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Diencephalon's Adult Neural Canal Region

Third Ventricle

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Mesencephalon's Adult Brain Structures

Brain stem: midbrain

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Mesencephalon's Adult Neural Canal Region

Cerebral Aquaduct

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Metancephalon's Adult Brain Structures

Brain Stem: pons

Cerebellum

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Metencephalon and Myelencephalon share what neural canal region?

Fourth Ventricle

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Myelencephalon's Adult Brain Structure

Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata

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Spinal Cord has what neural canal region?

Central Canal

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Effect of Space Restriction on Brain Development: Because the brain grows quicker than the skull...

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2 flexures develop...the midbrain flexure and the cervical flexure

both move the forebrain toward the brain stem

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Effect of Space Restriction on Brain Development: Because the cerebral hemispheres are forced to take a horseshoe-shaped course and grow posteriorly and laterally...

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they grow back over and almost completely envelop the diencephalon and midbrain

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Effect of Space Restriction on Brain Development: By week 26, the further growth of cerebral hemispheres causes their surfaces to crease and fold, producing convolutions and increasing surface area to allow...

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more neurons to occupy the limited space

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Ventricles in the brain

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4 of them!

Lateral Ventricle

Third Ventricle

Cerebral Aquaduct

Fourth Ventricle

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Ventricles are lined with...

Ependymal Cells

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2 Lateral apertures and a single median aperture in the 4th ventricle are the openings that connect the 4 ventricles to the...

subarachnoid space

26

The fluid that surrounds the brain, spinal cord, and ventricles is...

cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

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The Cerebral Hemispheres take up...

85% of total brain mass

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Ridges/folds of the hemispheres are called...

Gyri

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"shallow grooves" are called...

sulci

30

Sulci divide the brain into 5 hemispheres. What are they?

Frontal

Parietal

Temporal

Occipital

Insula

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"deep grooves" are called...

fissures

32

What jobs do fissures have?

separate large regions of brain

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The median longitudinal fissure separates...

the brain into right and left hemispheres

34

The transverse cerebral fissure separates...

the cerebral hemisphere from the cerebellum

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Lobes and Fissures of the Cerebral Hemispheres

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Cerebral Cortex Composition

outer layer of gray matter

neuron cell bodies

dendrites

neuroglia cells

blood vessels

NO axon or fiber tracts!!!

**billions of neurons arranged in 6 layers..(40% of brain mass)

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MRI of the cerebral cortex

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Brain Cortex: 3 kinds of Functional Areas

Motor areas

Sensory areas

Association areas

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All the neurons of the Brain Cortex are...

interneurons

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More Facts of Brain Cortex Function

each hemisphere controls the sensory and motor functions of the opposite side of the body

some functions of the brain are mostly found in one side of the brain

no functional area of the cortex acts alone

conscious behavior involves the entire cortex in one way or another

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Functional and Structural Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

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Cool map to help remember the important areas for structure and function

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Primary Motor Cortex Location

pre central gyrus of frontal lobe

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The Primary Motor Cortex has...

large neurons called pyramidal cells

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Pyramidal cells allow...

conscious control of muscles

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Pyramidal cells' long axons form...

motor tracts called pyramidal tracts (corticospinal tracts) in the spinal cord where innervation is contralateral (as in taking place on opposite sides)

47

The kind of mapping where pyramidal cells controlling specific body parts are grouped together...

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somatotopy

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Somatotopy's way of distorting the size of a figure to show how much gyrus is devoted to the body part is...

motor homunculi

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Premotor Cortex Location

just anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe

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Premotor Cortex Job

Controls learned motor skills of a repetitious or patterned nature (ex: typing, piano, driving)

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Broca's Area Location

anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area

present only in the left hemisphere

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Broca's Area Job

special motor speech

53

Frontal Eye Field Location

partially in and anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to the Broca's Area

54

Frontal Eye Field Job

controls voluntary movement of eyes

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Stroke Symptoms by Stroke Location:

stroke to primary motor cortex

loss of voluntary control (paralysis) of muscle

reflexes intact

56
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Stroke Symptoms by Stroke Location:

stroke to premotor cortex

loss of muscle motor memory

retain voluntary muscle control, but have to learn activities all over again

reflexes intact

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Primary Somatosensory Cortex Location

in the post central gyrus of parietal lobe

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2 Groups of neurons that supply the Primary Somatosensory Cortex

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sensory skin receptors (touch)

proprioceptors (position sense receptors)

**give a sense of spatial discrimination

and represented graphically by the somatosensory homunculus

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Somatosensory Association Cortex Location

just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex

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Somatosensory Association Cortex Job

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integrate sensory inputs

as in temperature, pressure, texture, size, memory

used when you pick up an object in your pocket without looking at it/feeling for something in the dark

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Visual Areas of the Cortex Location

on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe

buried deep in the calcarine sulcus

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Visual Areas of the Cortex Job

receives visual info from the retinas

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Visual Association Area Location

surrounds primary visual cortex and covers much of the occipital lobe

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Visual Association Area Job

uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli

enables us to recognize and appreciate what we see

65

Primary Auditory Cortex Location

each one is located in the superior margin of the temporal lobe abutting the lateral sulcus

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Primary Auditory Cortex Job

interprets pitch, loudness, location

67

Auditory Association Area Job

permits perception of sound stimulus:

understanding what we hear

storing memories of sound

Wernick's Area includes parts of the Auditory Cortex

68

Primary Olfactory (smell) Cortex Location

on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe

69

Primary Olfactory Cortex Job

makes us aware of different odors

70

Gustatory Cortex Location

in the insula, deep in the temporal lobe

71

Gustatory Cortex Job

involved in the perception of taste

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Visceral Sensory Area Location

in cortex of insula, posterior to gustatory cortex

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Visceral Sensory Area Job

perception of visceral sensations:

upset stomach, full bladder, constipation..

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Vestibular (Equilibrium) Cortex Location

posterior insula, deep in the Temporal Lobe

75

Vestibular (Equilibrium) Cortex Job

helps with conscious awareness of balance, head position

76

Multimodal Association Areas: sensory information flow in the brain (direction)

1st-to the primary sensory cortex (you can see the words on the test)

2nd-to the sensory association cortex (you recognize the words as something you read)

3rd-to the multimodal association cortex (the words you read have meaning, based on memory)

77

3 Parts of the Multimodal Association Cortex

Anterior Association Area (prefrontal cortex)

Posterior Association Area

Limbic Association Area

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Anterior Association Area (prefrontal cortex)

Location

frontal lobe

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Anterior Association Area (prefrontal cortex)

Job

intellect, complex learning, recall, personality, working memory, abstract ideas, judgment, reasoning, persistence, planning

heavily dependent on positive and negative feedback from one's social environment

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Posterior Association Area

Location

temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

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Posterior Association Area

Job

role in recognizing patterns, faces, localization, binding sensory inputs, understanding written and spoken language

way to remember: mmm..look at that guy's posterior!

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Limbic Association Area

Location

cingulate gyrus, hippocampus areas

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Limbic Association Area

Job

provides the emotional impact of a scene

84

Lateralization means that...

each hemisphere has some unique abilities

85

in 90%, the left hemisphere is dominant for...

language, math, logic

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in 90%, the right hemisphere is dominant for...

visual-spacial, intuition, emotion, art, music

87

90% of people with left hemisphere dominance tend to be...

right-handed

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In 10% of people, the roles of the hemispheres...

are reversed or share functions equally

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Cerebral White Matter consists largely of...

myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts

90

Tract Name Classification is determined by...

the direction in which they run

91

The 3 Tract Classification Names

Commissural Tracts

Association Fibers

Projection Fibers

92

Commissural Tract Example

corpus callosum--it connects the right and left hemispheres

93

Association Fibers Job

Connect different parts of the same hemisphere

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Projection Fibers Job

connect the cerebral hemispheres to the lower brain and spinal cord

95

Basal Nuclei are...

spots deep in the brain where large groups of neuron cell bodies are located

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The 3 groups of basal nuclei/neuron cell bodies

Caudate nucleus

Putamen

Globus Pallidus

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Basal Nuclei Job

important in starting, stopping, and monitoring the intensity of movements executed by the cortex, especially if they are slow or stereotyped

ex: swinging arms when walking

AND inhibit unwanted movements

ex: absent in Huntington's Chorea and Parkinson's Dz--Chorea (dance)

98

The Thalamus is...

one of the Diencephalon brain structures

composed of multiple separate nuclei

2 egg-shaped collections of nuclei in the center of the brain with a small space between them called the 3rd ventricle

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3rd Ventricle

a space between 2 egg-shaped collections of nuclei inside the thalamus

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Interthalamic adhesion (intermediate mass) is a..

small connection between the 2 egg-shaped collections of nuclei inside the thalamus

101

Thalamus Jobs

sorting and editing information

processing touch, pressure, pain

directing information to appropriate locations

102

Hypothalamus is...

below the thalamus

103

Hypothalamus composition

mammillary bodies

infundibulum

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Mammillary bodies are...

relay stations in the olfactory pathway

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The infundibulum is...

the connecting stalk of pituitary

106

Hypothalamus Jobs (multiple)

autonomic control center

center for emotional response

body temp regulation

regulation of food intake

regulation of water balance and thirst

regulation of sleep-wake cycles

control of endocrine system functioning

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Epithalamus Location

most dorsal part of the diencephalon

forms the roof of the third ventricle

pineal gland is located here

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Pineal Gland (body) Jobs

secretes the hormone melatonin to regulate the sleep-wake cycle

109

Brain Stem Composition

midbrain

pons

medulla oblongata

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10 of the 12 cranial nerves come out of the...

Brain Stem

111

Midbrain Location

between the diencephalon and the pons

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Cerebral Aquaduct Location

in the middle of the midbrain joining the 3rd and 4th ventricles

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surrounding the Cerebral Aqueduct is the...

periaquaductal gray matter

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periaquaductal gray matter jobs

involved in pain suppression and serves as a link for the fight-flight response

115

The 3rd and 4th cranial nerves are located here...

Midbrain

116

Pons Location

in between the midbrain and medulla oblangata

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Behind the pons is the...

4th ventricle

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Nuclei for CN V, CN VI, and CN VII are here...

Pons

119

Medulla Oblongata Location

between the pons and the spinal cord

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Pyramids are located at the lowest part of the...

Medulla Oblangata

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Pyramids are...

a collection of longitudinal fibers

122

Decussation of the pyramids

fibers that cross from left to right and vice versa (the cross-over point)

123

CN nuclei located in the medulla oblongata are...

CN VIII, CN IX, CN X, CN XI, CN XII

124

Medulla Oblongata Jobs

Cardiovascular center (for heart rate)

Respiratory center (for rate of breathing)

vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, sneezing, coughing (reflexes)

125

Cerebellum means

"small brain"

126

Cerebellum Location

behind the pons and medulla

below the transverse cerebral fissure

127

Cerebellum Jobs

precise contraction of skeletal muscles for smooth, coordinated movements (as in driving, typing, sports)

all of these functions are subconscious

128

Limbic System Jobs

emotional or affective feelings

helps recognize facial expressions

helps assess danger

elicits fear response

129

Psychosomatic Illness

a connection with an emotion that can induce an illness (like anxiety)

130

Reticular Formation Location

extends through the core of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

131

Reticular Activating System Job

sends continuous stream of impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it alert and enhance excitability

can filter out familiar or weak signals so you can focus on new things

132

Why can you ignore background noise while doing something?

The Reticular Activating System*

133

Meninges Location

layers around the brain

134

3 Layers of Meninges

Dura mater

Arachnoid mater

Pia mater

135

Falx Cerebri

Falx Cerebelli

Tentorium Cerebelli

are partitions that subdivide the cranial cavity of the dura mater

136

Falx Cerebri location

between right and left hemispheres

137

Falx Cerebelli location

between right and left cerebellum

138

Tentorium Cerebelli location

separates the cerebrum and cerebellum

139

Arachnoid mater contains the...

subdural space and subarachnoid space

140

Subarachnoid space is between...and is filled with...

the arachnoid mater and pia mater

CSF

141

The Pia mater is...

directly attached to the brain

142

Dural Septa and Dural Venous Sinuses

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ex: falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli

143

Cerebrospinal Fluid Location

in and around spinal cord and brain

144

CSF Jobs

protects brain and spinal cord

145

Choroid Plexus is found...

It is...

in the roof of each ventricle

a bunch of capillaries where CSF is released

146

CSF is constantly...

being formed and reabsorbed

replaced every 8 hours

about 500 ml is formed per day

147

Circulation of CSF

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lateral ventricles --> foramen of Monro/third ventricle --> aqueduct of Sylvius --> fourth ventricle --> foramina of Magendie and Luschka --> subarachnoid space over brain and spinal cord --> reabsorption into venous sinus blood via arachnoid granulations

148

Hydrocephalus

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CSF accumulation

149

The Spinal Cord is protected by the...

spinal dura mater and CSF and an epidural space is exterior to the spinal dura mater

150

Spinal Cord tip ends at about

L1 or L2

151

Cone-shaped end of the spinal cord is the...

conus medullaris

152

Cauda equina is...

a bunch of sacral nerve fibers that come out of the conus medullaris like a horse tail

153

What is the best area to do a lumbar spinal tap?

the cauda equina

154

Spinal cord Cross-Sectional Anatomy

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The gray matter of the spinal cord looks like the letter "H" or like a "butterfly"

central canal

155

The middle of the spinal cord is the...

central canal

156

2 posterior projections of the spinal cord's gray matter are...

the dorsal horns

157

Dorsal Horns

Jobs

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where afferent fibers bring info into the spinal cord

where a dorsal root ganglion is part of the entering nerve

ex: nerve fiber stretched by reflex hammer

158

2 anterior projections of the spinal cord's gray matter are...

the ventral horns

159

Ventral Horns

Jobs

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where efferent fibers project information out of the spinal cord

ex: muscle is stimulated by nerve to contract

160

Lumbar Tap Puncture

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161

Organization of the Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord

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162

Lumbar Myelomeningocele/Spina Bifita

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