Activity 1: Identifying Respiratory System Organs-Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures

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Lower Respiratory System Structures
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1

The trachea is also commonly known as what?

The windpipe

2

Air entering the trachea from the larynx travels down to the level of what angle?

Sternal angle

3

The sternal angle is located where judging from the thoracic vertebrae?

Located between the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae

4

The trachea divides into right and left at which level?

At the level between the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae

5

Between the fourth and fifth thoracic cavity, the trachea divides into what 2 sections?

1. Right primary bronchi

2. Left primary bronchi

6

The right and left primary bronchis plunge into their respective lungs at which area?

hilum

7

How is the right primary bronchus different from the left in 3 ways?

1. Wider

2. Shorter

3. More vertical

8

Why is the right primary bronchus structural differences beneficial?

It is more likely to trap foreign objects

9

The trachea is lined with what type of cell?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

10

Mucus is produced by what type of cells?

Goblet cells

11

What is the purpose of mucus in the trachea?

Traps dust particles, debris, and bacteria

12

What is the purpose of cilia in the trachea?

Propels mucus that is trapped with dust particles, debris, and bacteria toward the throat where it can be swallowed

13

The walls of the trachea are reinforced with what type of rings?

C-shaped rings

14

The C-shaped rings of the trachea walls are made out of what material?

Cartilage

15

The C-shaped rings of the trachea walls differ posteriorly in which way?

They are incomplete, meaning they don't fully connect

16

What are the 2 functions of the C-shaped rings?

1. Incomplete parts allow the esophagus to expand anteriorly for a food bolus to pass

2. The solid parts reinforce the trachea walls to keep it open regardless of the pressure changes during breathing

17

Which muscle allows the trachea to expand?

Trachealis muscle

18

What are the 8 subsequent divisions of the main bronchi?

1. Lobar

2. Segmental

3. Bronchioles

4. Terminal bronchioles

5. Respiratory bronchioles

6. Alveolar ducts

7. Alveolar sacs

8. Alveoli

19

Lobar and segmental are also known as what? (Hint: think of the main bronchi being also being called "primary")

Lobar=secondary

Segmental=tertiary

20

Each bronchiole further divides into what?

Terminal bronchioles

21

Each terminal bronchiole further divides into what?

Respiratory bronchioles

22

All of the branches of the main bronchi, except for the smallest branches, have what specific type of reinforcement in their walls?

Hyaline cartilage reinforcement

23

As the respiratory tubes get smaller and smaller, what happens to the amount of smooth muscle vs the amount of cartilage?

The amount of smooth muscle gradually increases while the amount of cartilage continuously decreases until there is none.

24

The continuous branching of the respiratory passageways in the lungs if often referred to as what?

Bronchial tree

25

The respiratory bronchioles further subdivide into what?

Alveolar ducts

26

The alveolar ducts terminate in what type of structures?

Alveolar sacs

27

Alveolar sacs then subdivide into what?

Alveoli

28

Alveoli are composed of what type of cells?

Squamous epithelium

29

Alveoli are covered with what type of blood vessels?

Capillaries

30

What 3 walls form the respiratory membrane?

1. Alveolar walls

2. Capillary walls

3. ***And the fused basement membranes of the above two

31

The respiratory membrane is also called what?

Blood air barrier

32

The respiratory membrane is the site of what exchange?

Gas exchange

33

What 3 structures make up the respiratory zone structures?

1. Alveolar sacs

2. Alveolar ducts

3. Respiratory bronchioles

34

Why are the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles referred to as the respiratory zone structures?

Because gas exchanges occur by simple diffusion across the respiratory membrane

35

What are conducting zone structures generally?

All other respiratory passageways from the nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles

36

How do conducting zone structures get their general name?

Because they simply serve as access or exit routes to and from the gas exchange chambers of the respiratory zone structures; there is no diffusion

37

Conducting zone structures are also collectively called what?

Anatomical dead space

38

The paired lungs occupy which cavity except around what structure?

Occupy the entire thoracic cavity except for the mediastinum

39

The mediastinum house what 3 example organs?

1. Heart

2. Bronchoi

3. Esophagus

40

Each lung is connected to the mediastinum by what?

A root

41

A root which connects each lung to the mediastinum contains what 2 attachments?

1. Bronchial attachments

2. Vascular attachments

42

The structures of the root enter or leave the lung via what medial indentation?

Hilum

43

All structures distal to the main bronchi are found where?

Within the lung substance

44

The lung's apex lies deep to what bone?

Clavicle

45

The lung's base rests on which organ?

Diaphragm

46

What 3 surfaces make up the costal surface?

1. Anterior lung surface

2. Posterior lung surface

3. Lateral lung surface

47

Why are the anterior, posterior, and lateral lung surfaces referred collectively to as the costal surface?

They are in close proximity with the ribs

48

The medial surface of the left lung exhibits what notch?

Cardiac notch

49

What is the function of the cardiac notch?

Accommodates the heart

50

Fissures divide the lungs into what?

Lobes

51

How many lobes are in the left lung?

2

52

How many lobes are in the right right lung?

3

53

The lungs are mostly made out of what type of tissue?

Elastic connective tissue

54

Elastic connective tissue composition provides what functional benefit to the lungs?

Allows them to recoil passively during expiration

55

Each lung is enclosed in what serous membrane?

Pleura

56

Describe the pleura structurally. (Hint: type of membrane and type of sac)

Double-layered sac of serous membrane

57

What is the outer covering layer of the lungs?

Parietal pleura

58

The parietal pleura is attached to what wall and organ?

Attached to the thoracic wall and the diaphragm.

59

The inner layer of the lungs is what?

Visceral pleura

60

The visceral pleura covers what type of tissue?

Lung tissue

61

The parietal and visceral pleura are separated by what?

Pleural cavity

62

The pleural cavity is filled with what?

Pleural fluid

63

The pleural fluid is produced by what?

Pleurae

64

What is the function of the pleural fluid?

Allows the lungs to glide without friction over the thoracic wall during breathing

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