Anatomy final Flashcards


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1
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Labeling the kidney

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2
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Labeling the nephron

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Function and tissue type of the Afferent arteriole

Function: Carry blood from renal artery into glomerulus

Tissue: Smooth muscle

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Function and tissue type of Glomerulus

Function: Components that carry out the primary filtering action of the kidney connect blood vessels of the kidney to other structure called tubules

Tissue: Simple squamous endothelium

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Function and tissue type of Bowman's capsule

Function: Performs first step of filtration of blood

Tissue: Simple squamous epithelium

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Function and tissue type of efferent arteriole

Function Delivers blood away from the capillaries of the kidney

Tissue: Smooth muscle

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Function and tissue type of proximal convoluted tubules

Function: Active and passive reabsorption

Tissue: Simple Squamous

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Function and tissue type of descending limb

Function: Water reabsorption

Tissue: Simple cuboidal epithelium

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Function and tissue of ascending limb

Function: solutes reabsorbed

Tissue: cuboidal/ columnar cells

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Function and tissue of convoluted tubule

Function: Active secretion of solutes back into filtrate some reabsorption (sodium/Cl)

Tissue: Simple cuboidal

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Function and tissue of collecting duct

Function: Transports materials across membrane; reabsorbs water

Tissue: Squamous epithelium

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What causes high pressure and controls filtration rate in the glomerulus?

Efferent arteriole diameter decreased; By adding resistance to the efferent arteriole it causes high pressure

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What is the glomerular filtration rate(GFR)?

Volume per minute; determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys, way to measure kidney function

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How is water transported out of the tubule?

Osmosis? Passive?

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Name one consequence of having a very short loop of Henle in the nephron

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Collecting ducts

Region of the Nephron that regulatory hormones target

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Aldosterone

Causes conservation of sodium and water, and secretion of potassium, increasing blood volume and therefore blood pressure

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Anti- Diuretic Hormone

Increases water permeability by translocating aquaporin water channels in the plasma membrane

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Active transport

Where reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle occurs

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Countercurrent multiplication

Movement of solutes changes interstitial osmolarity and allows the reabsorption of water from tubular fluid to produce more concentrate urine

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Loop of Henle

Site of countercurrent multiplication in the nephron

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Location and function of the adrenal gland

Location: At the top of each kidney

Function: To produce hormones that help the body control blood sugar, burn proteins and fat, and regulate blood pressure

23

Describe the effect of alcohol on ADH and the physiological effects of excess alcohol consumption

ADH stops you from urinating, it makes your body hold on to water when your dehydrated. Alcohol reduces how much ADH you produce, therefore increasing urine production. By drinking alcohol you will still be dehydrated or become and it causes electrolyte imbalances.

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Urine leaves kidneys by ________ and collects in the __________.

Ureters, bladder

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_________ expands to store urine that eventually leaves through the _________.

Bladder; urethra

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Micturition

Urination occurs through the urethra

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Urine pathway

Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, outside

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Pigment responsible for the urines yellow color

Urochrome

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Average pH of urine

6

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Inorganic constituents of urine

sulfates and phosphates

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Organic constituents of urine

Glucose and blood

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Human kidney composed of __ layers

3

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Layers of kidney

Renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal Pelvis

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Renal cortex

Outermost layer; contains about 1 million nephrons, the filtering units that form urine

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Renal medulla

Middle layer; segregated into renal pyramids

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Renal pelvis

Funnel- shaped; extending inward from the hilum; collects urine from the pyramids and conveys it into the ureter for passage to the urinary bladder

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Major calcyes

larger, primary fingerlike extensions of renal pelvis

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Minor calcyes

subdivisions of major calcyes

39

How many deciduous and permanent teeth do humans have?

Deciduous: 20

permanent: 32

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How many deciduous and permanent teeth do cats have?

Deciduous: 15

Permanent: 30

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Tooth labeling

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Name two mechanisms acting from outside the kidney (extrinsic) that contributes to kidney function

bp and adh

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Which substance is actively reabsorbed across the membranes of the proximal convoluted tubule using a carrier method?

glucose

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In a diabetic person, what substances remains in the urine

glucose

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A high pressure environment inside the __________ causes a plasma- like substance to squeeze out into the Bowman’s capsule.

glomerulus

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This process in urine formation is called

filtration

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Reabsorption of useful substances from the filtrate primarily occurs in the

pct

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_____________ changes the composition of urine and is the opposite of reabsorption

Secretion

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Which structure collects urine from several nephrons distal tubules and carries it through the medulla pyramids to the minor calyces?

Collecting duct

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Blood composition depends on 3 major factors

diet, urinary output, cellular metabolism

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An increase in ____results in corresponding increase in filtration rate and urine output.

bp

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Filtrate has been reduced by what percentage once it leaves the proximal convoluted tubule

65%

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The descending limb of the loop of Henle is thinner and is made of what type of epithelium?

simple squamous

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Both male and female reproductive systems include:

Reproductive organs or gonads that produce gametes(reproductive cells) and hormones

Ducts that transport and receive gametes

Accessory glands or organs that secrete fluids

Perineal structures associated with the reproductive system known as external genitalia

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What are perineal structures also known as

External genitalia

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Essential primary organs in both men and women are called

gonads

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Gonads are

gamete producing organs

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Gonads in men what do they excrete

Testes; sperm

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Gonads in women and what do they excrete

Ovaries; eggs and ova

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Testes exocrine and endocrine function

Sperm; testosterone

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The endocrine products of the female reproductive system are estrogen and

progesterone

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Cremaster muscles

Raise and lower testes in response to changes in body temp

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Dense connective tissue capsule called the __________________ cover each testis

Tunica albuginea

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These sheaths(tunica albuginea) house highly coiled seminiferous tubules (sperm forming factories)

Tubules empty into rete testis then the epididymis

Interstitial cells are located in between seminiferous tubules

Produce testosterone

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Epididymis

Structure and function

Structure: Elongated that surrounds the testes superior aspect

Function: Site of maturation of sperm

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Ductus deferens/ vans deferns(sperm duct)

Structure and function

Structure: Enclosed along blood vessels/ nerves in a connective sheath (Spermatic cord)

Function: Conveys sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

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Ejaculatory duct

Contraction of this duct during ejaculation propels sperm through the prostate

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Urethra

Sperm travels through/ out of body

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Estrogen increases the size of __________ during puberty

mammary glands

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If fertilization and subsequent implantation does not occur, the corpus luteum undergoes apoptosis and after several months becomes the ______________

corpus albicans

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Which hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles and stimulates sperm production?________

FSH

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Falling estrogen levels causes what hormone do decline?

LH

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What structure of the sperm contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the egg?

Acrosome

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Which stage of the menstrual cycle begins after ovulation?

secretory

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Label this

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Endocrine glands are ________

ductless = they do not have ducts to take their secretions to specific sites

Instead, hormones are secreted directly into capillaries and circulate in the blood throughout the body

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Hyposecretion

a deficiency of a hormone

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Hypersecretion

excess secretion of a hormone

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80

Two major portions of pituitary gland

Posterior pituitary gland

Anterior pituitary gland

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Pituitary connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by a slender stalk called the

infundibulum

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Gonadotropins—follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH)

Regulate gamete production, hormonal activity of gonads

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Regulates endocrine activity of cortex portion of the adrenal gland

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Thyroid-stmulating hormone (TSH)/thyrotropin

Influences growth and activity of thyroid gland

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2 hormones of the Thyroid gland

Function and target organ

Hormones: Thyroxine(T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

Function: Control the rate of metabolism

Target organ: everywhere in the body

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Another hormone of the thyroid gland

Function and target organ

Calcitonin

Function: Controls calcium concentration in the body by stimulating bone deposition

Target: Bone, kidneys, and blood

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Parathyroid glands

Function and target

Parathormone(PTH)

Function: Regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism. Antagonist to calcitonin

Target: Bone, Kidneys, and blood

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Adrenal cortex hormones

Aldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens and estrogens

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Aldosterone function and target

Function: Decrease the rate of sodium-ion excretion and to increase the rate of potassium- ion excretion

Target: Kidneys

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Cortisol function and target

Function: stimulates glycogen formation white it decreases the rate of glucose utilization in body cells

Target: liver

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Androgens and estrogens function and target

Function: Involved in outset of puberty and development of secondary sexual characteristics

Target: reproductive system

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Adrenal medulla hormones

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

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Epinephrine and norepinephrine function and target

Function: Promotes the flight- or- flight response

Target: Everywhere in the body

94

Pancreas hormones

Insulin and glucagon

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Insulin function and target

Function: lowers the blood glucose level

Target: body cells

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Glucagon function and target

Function: Stimulates an increase in blood sugar levels. Antagonist to insulin

Target: liver

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Ovary hormones

Estrogen and progesterone

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Estrogen function and target

Function: Promotes development of secondary sexual characteristics, development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics and promotes development of the mammary glands.

Target: The whole body, uterus and breasts

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Progesterone function and target

Function: Prepares uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum and maintains pregnancy, and promotes development of the mammary glands.

Target: Uterus and breasts

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Testis hormone

Function and target

Testosterone

Function: Responsible for the development of the male reproductive system and secondary male sexual characteristics

Target: Gonads, ducts, and glands

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Thymus hormone

Function and target

Thymosin

Function: Promotes maturation and specialization of T cells

Target: Lymphocytes