Chordates- Chapter 34 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Emilee_Meyer
2,440 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?

vertebrae

2

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

suspension-feeding devices

3

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

lancelets

4

At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.

Hox

5

A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?

no jaws

6

What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?

partial or complete skull

7

Terry catches a ray-finned fish from the ocean and notices that attached to its flank is an equally long, snakelike organism. The attached organism has no external segmentation, no scales, a round mouth surrounded by a sucker, and two small eyes. Terry thinks it might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a lamprey.

Which feature excludes the organism from possibly being a leech?

lack of external segmentation

8

The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is _____.

an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage

9

Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. lobe-fins
2. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichthyans
5. tetrapods

3, 4, 1, 5, 2

10

For the following item, match the extant vertebrate groups with the descriptions.

Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of

nonbird reptiles

11

The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still

not sink

12

Most members of which of the following groups are most closely associated with a wet or moist environment?

amphibians

13

What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?

They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.

14

In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?

reptiles and mammals

15

Which of these are amniotes?

amphibians

placental mammals

egg-laying mammalsfishes

*More than one of these is correct.

16

Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

birds

17

What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?

feathers

18

Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?

All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies. (in the deuterostome lineage, only adult echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry.)

19

Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?

exoskeleton

20

True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.

false

21

Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?

their body plan

22

Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?

The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.

23

Which characteristics define a chordate?

The presence of four specific morphological traits.

24

Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?

Pharyngeal gill slit

25

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.

method of reproduction

26

Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?

post-anal tail

27

How did the evolution of the jaw contribute to diversification of early vertebrate lineages?

It made additional food sources available.

28

A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was _____.

feet with digits

29

What is believed to be the most significant result of the evolution of the amniotic egg?

Tetrapods were no longer tied to the water for reproduction

30

Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this habit?

endothermy

31

Which of these are amniotes?

turtles

32

Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials _____.

have some embryonic development outside the uterus

33

If a tunicate's pharyngeal gill slits were suddenly blocked, the animal would have trouble _____.

respiring and feeding

34

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

lancelets

35

A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?

no jaws

36

Jaws evolved _____.

by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits

37

Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?

chondrichthyans

38

Listed below are four adaptations of terrestrial vertebrates. Which is a characteristic only of truly terrestrial animals with no need to return to water at any stage of the life cycle?

amniotic eggs

39

Which structure of the amniotic egg most closely surrounds the embryo?

the amnion

40

Suppose you traveled back in time and located the first animals to have evolved feathers. You found that these animals were tree-dwelling ectotherms, able to run quickly but unable to fly. You also noticed that only males had feathers. Which hypothesis of feather evolution would these data most support? Feathers initially evolved in a role associated with _____.

sexual selection

41

Humans are _______.

Homo sapiens

42

Brown et al. and Morwood et al. reported in 2004 that they had found skeletal remains of a previously unknown type of hominin, now dubbed Homo floresiensis, on the Indonesian island of Flores. These hominins were small (approximately 1 meter tall) with small braincases (approximately 380 cubic centimeters) as compared with other hominins. The remains of H. floresiensis were found alongside handmade stone tools and the remains of dwarf elephants that also inhabited the island, suggesting that H. floresiensis was able both to make tools and to coordinate the hunting of animals much larger than itself. H. floresiensis is estimated to have lived at the site where the remains were found from at least 38,000 years ago to 18,000 years ago.

Refer to the paragraph on Brown et al. and Morwood et al. Which would be the most feasible method of figuring out to which other hominin species H. floresiensiswas most closely related?

Compare the skeletal morphology of H. floresiensis to that of each of the other hominin species.

43

Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?

The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved separately