Athletic Training Special Tests Flashcards


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created 6 years ago by jackie_guerraaa
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updated 6 years ago by jackie_guerraaa
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1

Cranial Nerve Assessment

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2

Spurling's Test

- Patient's head extended and rotated toward the painful shoulder.

- Examiner applies an axial load to the cervical spine

(+) Pain

-Indication: Cervical Nerve Root Impingement usually caused by disc herniation

3

Stork's Test

- Patient is standing on one leg and performs backwards bending

- Examiner applies an axial load to the cervical spine

(+) test: Pain

Indication: Spondylolysis/ Spondylosisthesis

4

Slump Test

Test for Lumbar Spine

- Patient is sitting

- Ask the patient t perform the following motions.

  • Cervical Spine Flexion
  • Knee Extension
  • Ankle Dorsiflexion
  • Release Neck Flexion
  • Bilateral Knee Extension

(+) Test: Increased radiating pain as sequential changes in posture occur

Indication: Increased neural tension caused by disc herniation or nerve root impingement

5

Straight Leg Raise Test

- Patient is supine and slowly lifts a leg while keeping the knee extended

- At the end of motion (Max Flexion) dorsiflex the ankle

(+) test: Pain

Indication:

  • Pain at 30 degrees indicated hip problem or inflamed nerve
  • Pain from 30-60 degrees indicates sciatic nerve impingement
  • Pain from 70-90 degrees indicates sacroiliac joint problem
  • Pain with dorsiflexion at the end of motion indicates nerve root impingement or sciatic nerve irritation

6

Phalen's Test

Position:

  • Patient flexes the wrists and puts the back of the hands together
  • The position is held for approx 1 minute

(+) Test:

  • Pain & Numbness

Indication:

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

7

Finklestein's Test

Position:

  • Athlete makes a fist with the thumb tucked on the inside
  • Wrist is ulnarly deviated

(+) Test:

  • Pain

Indication:

  • DeQuarvain's Syndrome

8

Valgus or Varus Stress Test for Elbow

Valgus (Ulnar)

  • Position:
    • Patient’s elbow flexed to 25°
    • One hand supports the lateral elbow with the fingers reaching behind the joint to palpate the medial joint line
    • The opposite grasps the distal forearm
    • Examiner applies valgus torque to the elbow
  • (+) Test:
    • Increased laxity compared to the opposite side, and/or
      pain
  • Indication:
  • Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament

9

Valgus or Varus Stress Test for Knee

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10

Test for Lateral Epicondylitis

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11

Test for Medial Epicondylitis

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12

Murphy's Sign

Position:

  • Athlete is sitting or standing
  • Athlete makes a fist and the examiner observes the position of the third metacarpal

(+) Test:

  • Third metacarpal is at level with the second and the fourth metacarpals

Indications:

  • Dislocated lunate

13

Neer's Impingement Sign

Position:

  • Patient's shoulder is placed in internal rotation
  • While maintaining shoulder internal rotation, examiner passively flexes the shoulder to end range

(+) test:

  • Pain in subacrominal space between 90-180 deg of flexion

Indication:

  • Subacromial impingement

14

Hawkins - Kennedy Test

Position:

  • Patient's shoulder is placed in 90 deg of flexon with elbow flexed to 90 deg
  • While maintaining shoulder flexion, examiner passively internally rotates the shoulder

(+) test:

  • Pain in subacromial space in end range

Indication:

  • Subacrominal Impingement

15

Roo's Test

Position:

  • Patient abducts both arms and flexes elbows to 90 deg flexion
  • Patient opens and closes the hands for 3 minutes

(+) Test:

  • Inability to maintain testing position or replication of motor/sensory symptoms

Indication:

  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

16

Allen's Test

Position:

  • Examiner palpates the radial pulse
  • Examiner abducts the patients shoulder and flex the elbow to 90 deg and externally rotates the arm while asking the patient to rotate the head away from injured side

(+) test:

  • Diminished or disappearance of radial pulse

Indication:

  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

17

Speed's Test

Position:

• Patient sitting with elbow extended and palm facing forward
• Examiner resists shoulder flexion while palpating for tenderness over the bicipital groove.

(+) Test:
• Pain over LH biceps tendon

Indication:
• LH biceps tendinopathy

18

Empty Can Test

Position:
• Patient’s shoulders elevated 90° in a scapular plane (30° anterior to the frontal plane)
• With patient’s thumb pointing down (i.e. empting the can), examiner applies downward pressure at the wrist
(+) Test:
• Weakness or pain accompanying the movement
Indication:
• Supraspinatus pathology (ex. impingement, RC tear, tendinopathy)

19

O'Brien's Test

Position:
• Patient’s shoulder in 90° flexion and 15° horizontal adduction
• With patient’s thumb pointing down ( = shoulder IR), examiner applies downward pressure at the wrist
• Repeats this with palm facing up ( = shoulder ER)
(+) Test:
• Pain or clicking within the GH joint experienced with the arm internally rotated but is decreased during external rotation
Indication:
• Labral pathology
*Note that pain at AC joint may indicate AC joint injury

20

Anterior Drawer Test of the Knee

Position:

  • Patient is supine with knee flexed to 90°, muscles relaxed
  • Examiner stabilizes the foot (can sit on the foot), and pulls the proximal tibia anterior

(+) Test:

  • Forward movement of the tibia that is greater than the normal side

Indication:

  • Damage to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

21

Lachman's Test

Position:

  • Patient supine with knee flexed to 30°, muscles relaxed
  • Examiner grasps the patient's femur with 1 hand, and proximal tibia with another, and pulls the proximal tibia anterior while stabilizing the femur

(+) Test:

  • Forward movement of the tibia that is greater than the normal side

Indication:

  • Damage to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

22

McMurray's Test

Position:

  • Examiner places one hand on top of the knee with thumb over one joint line and index and middle finger on the other joint line
  • From full flexion, move the knee into extension while:
  • Maintaining tibial external rotation and applying varus torque (stresses medial meniscus)
  • Maintaining tibial internal rotation and applying valgus torque (stresses lateral meniscus)

(+) Test:

  • Popping, clicking, or locking of the knee

Indication:

  • Possible meniscal tear

23

Posterior Sag Test

Position:

  • Patient is supine of a treatment table
  • Examiner supports the patient's legs in a 90/90 position

(+) Test:

  • Posterior sagging of the tibia

Indication:

  • Damage to the posterior cruciate ligament

24
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Thompson Test

Leg Special Test

Position:

  • Examiner squeezes the patient's calf muscles, while the foot is extended off the table

(+) Test:

  • Absence of foot movement (plantar flexion)

Indication:

  • Achilles tendon rupture

25

Inversion Talor Tilt

Position:

  • Patient's ankle in 90 degree dorsiflexion
  • Examiner cups a hand around the calcaneous and inverts the foot while palpating the lateral ligaments]

(+) test:

  • Excessive motion and/or clunking sound as it reaches the end point

Indication:

  • Damage to the calcaneofibular (CF) ligament (primarily) and other lateral structures

26

Eversion Talor Tilt

Position:

  • Patient's ankle in 90° dorsiflexion
  • Examiner cups a hand around the calcaneous and everts the foot while palpating the deltoid ligaments

(+) Test:

  • Excessive motion and/or clunking sound as it reaches the end point

Indication:

  • Damage to the deltoid ligaments

27

Klieger's Test

Position:

  • Examiner stabilizes the distal leg, while grasping the patient's foot and passively moving the ankle into dorsiflexion and external rotation

(+) Test:

  • Pain

Indication:

  • Damage to the deltoid ligament, distal ankle syndesmosis, anterior/posterior distal tibiofibular ligaments. and interosseous membrane

28

Yeargason's Test

Position:

  • Patient sitting with elbow flexed 90° and forearm pronated
  • Examiner resists elbow flexion and supination
  • (+) Test:
    • Pain or snapping in the bicipital groove
  • Indication:
    • LH biceps tendinopathy

29

Appley's Compression Test (Pulling upwards)

Position:

  • Patient is prone with knee flexed 90°
  • Examiner applies axial loading to the leg while rotating tibia (foot) into internal and external rotation

(+) Test:

  • Pain

Indication:

  • Possible meniscus injury

30

Appley's Distraction Test (Pushing downwards)

Position:

  • Patient is prone with knee flexed 90°
  • Examiner applies distraction to the leg while rotating tibia (foot) into internal and external rotation

(+) Test:

  • Pain

Indication:

  • Possible injury to the ligament or joint capsule
  • No pain if meniscal injury is present