A&P II - Ch 22,23,24 - Marieb

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1

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

A) secrete surfactant
B) trap dust and other debris
C) replace mucus in the alveoli
D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A) secrete surfactant
Page Ref: 815

2

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is___________.

A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Page Ref: 820

3

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

A) surface tension of water
B) surfactant
C) cartilage rings
D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C) cartilage rings
Page Ref: 813

4

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

A) humidifying the air before it enters
B) warming the air before it enters
C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Page Ref: 823

5

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

A) alveolar sacs
B) alveoli
C) respiratory bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts

B) alveoli
Page Ref: 815

6

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

A) mesenteries
B) lamina propria
C) serosal lining
D) mucosal lining

A) mesenteries
Page Ref: 855

7

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
Page Ref: 856-857

8

What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?

A) crown
B) enamel
C) pulp
D) cementum

B) enamel
Page Ref: 863

9

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

A) muscularis mucosae
B) serosa
C) adventitia
D) lamina propria

D) lamina propria
Page Ref: 856

10

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin CCK
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

C) cholecystokinin CCK
Page Ref: 886

11

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.
B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.
C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.
D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
Page Ref: 884

12

19) Chyme is created in the ________.

A) mouth
B) stomach
C) esophagus
D) small intestine

B) stomach
Page Ref: 866

13

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

A) rennin
B) pepsin
C) lipase
D) cholecystokinin

C) lipase
Page Ref: 897

14

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

A) mastication
B) catabolism
C) anabolism
D) fermentation

B) catabolism
Page Ref: 854

15

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.

B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Page Ref: 887, 889

16

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion

D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

Page Ref: 886

17

Three digestive enzymes...

• Carbohydrases - digest carbohydrates. Includes amylase and maltase.

• Lipases - break down lipids (fats and oils).

• Proteases - digest proteins. Includes pepsin and trypsin.

18

Enzymes from the small intestine include:

• Lactase (breaks down milk sugar)

• DPP IV (breaks down milk protein and other protein bonds)

• Dissacharrides (breaks down some starches and sugars).

19

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?

A) derived from meat and fish only

B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet

C) derived only from legumes and other plant material

D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
Page Ref: 914

20

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

A) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats

B) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories

C) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
Page Ref: 918

21

The term metabolic rate reflects the ________.

A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

B) loss of organic molecules in urine

C) energy needed to make all organic molecules

D) loss of energy to perspiration

A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
Page Ref: 949

22

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.

A) urea
B) ammonia
C) acetyl CoA
D) ketone bodies

A) urea
Page Ref: 933

23

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

A) vitamins provide protection against the common cold

B) very few foods contain vitamins

C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Page Ref: 915-916

24

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

B) gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis

C) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation

D) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain

A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Page Ref: 919

25

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

A) carbohydrate utilization increases

B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

C) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source

D) ketone bodies are formed

B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

Page Ref: 918-919

26

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.

A) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies

B) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state

C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

D) elevates glucagon levels

C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Page Ref: 919

27

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

A) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water

B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

C) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water

D) formation of sugar

B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Page Ref: 923

28

Select the correct statement about proteins.

A) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.

B) Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.

C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Page Ref: 914

29

What is Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)?

Bacteria found in the inner lining of the stomach/duodenum, that causes chronic inflammation. It is a microorganism that can live in the acidic environment of the stomach.

30

What is the Brunner Gland?

any gland within the submucosal layer of the duodenum. Secretes an alkaline fluid into the small intestine.

31

What is the function of vitamins?

Vitamins are found in all major food groups and a balanced diet is the best way to ensure a full vitamin complement.

32

Minerals...
What are the main minerals?
How can you obtain these minerals?

• Calcium, Chlorine, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Sulfur

• Minerals can be obtained through the following foods ... vegetables, legumes, milk, and some meats.

33

Lipolysis?

breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids

34

Function and deficiencies of Selenium?

• Components of enzymes functions in close association with vitamin E and antioxidants

• Muscle pain, heart muscle deteriation (nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and weight loss).

35

Messentery is...

a double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines.

36

Mesentery functions?

Holds organs in place; Route for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves to connect to the organ; Stores fat.

37

Processes of digestion...

Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, defecation

38

7 functions of the stomach...

1) Storage of food and liquid during digestion
2) Secrete gastric juices for digestion
3) Secrete mucus while churning
4) Rugae - muscular folds allow for expansion
5) Gastric juices - hydrochloric acid and pepsin to break down protein
6) Chyme - semiliquid mixture that leaves stomach and goes to small intestine
7) Intrinsic factor - B12

39

3 functions of the duodenum...

1) First part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder (bile), and pancreas (lipase, bicarbonate, protease)

2)Contains mucus for protection

3)Muscular structure: inner circular and outer longitudinal layers

40

4 regions of the large intestine...

1)Cecum
• Appendix
2)Colon
• Ascending
• Transverse
• Descending
• Sigmoid
3)Rectum
4)Anus

41

What is chyme?

a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum.

42

What is the pathway of food?

• mouth
• pharynx
• esophagus
• stomach
• small intestine
• large intestine
• rectum
• anus