42 notecards = 11 pages (4 cards per page)
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
A) secrete surfactant
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is___________.
B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
C) cartilage rings
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
D) lamina propria
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
C) cholecystokinin CCK
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
19) Chyme is created in the ________.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
Three digestive enzymes...
• Carbohydrases - digest carbohydrates. Includes amylase and maltase.
Enzymes from the small intestine include:
• Lactase (breaks down milk sugar)
Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
The term metabolic rate reflects the ________.
A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Select the correct statement about proteins.
C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
What is Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)?
Bacteria found in the inner lining of the stomach/duodenum, that causes chronic inflammation. It is a microorganism that can live in the acidic environment of the stomach.
What is the Brunner Gland?
any gland within the submucosal layer of the duodenum. Secretes an alkaline fluid into the small intestine.
What is the function of vitamins?
Vitamins are found in all major food groups and a balanced diet is the best way to ensure a full vitamin complement.
• Calcium, Chlorine, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Sulfur
breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids
Function and deficiencies of Selenium?
• Components of enzymes functions in close association with vitamin E and antioxidants
a double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines.
Holds organs in place; Route for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves to connect to the organ; Stores fat.
Processes of digestion...
Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, defecation
7 functions of the stomach...
1) Storage of food and liquid during digestion
3 functions of the duodenum...
1) First part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder (bile), and pancreas (lipase, bicarbonate, protease)
4 regions of the large intestine...
What is chyme?
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum.
What is the pathway of food?