Heart, Blood and Cardio

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1

Cardio means

Heart

2

"vasc" means

blood vessels

3

Cardiovascular System study...

  1. Blood
  2. Heart
  3. Blood Vessls
4

Lymphatic System

  1. Lymph (interstitial fluid)
  2. Lymphatic Vessels
  3. Lymph Gland
5

It is considered

  • the river of the life in the body or
  • Life sustaining fluid

Blood

6

It serves:

  1. as a transport "vehicle" for the organs of the cardiovascular system

Blood

7

____________'s characteristics :

  • Slightly viscous - 4.5 to 5.5 (due to cells and plasma proteins)
  • consists of :

a) Cells

b) Plasma

c) NaCl

Blood

8

pH of Blood is

75.35 to 7.45

9

Amount of blood for :

- men

- women

  • Males = 5 to 6 liters
  • Females = 4 to 5 liters
10

a) Amount of blood cells in blood

- 99% RB's

- 1% WBC's)

11

Plasma is

  • extracellular fluid, which 91% is water
  • It is the liquid part of blood -
  • Straw colored
  • It is the whole blood MINUS the Cells
12

Range of Plasma in Blood

55%

13

Nutrients in Plasma are:

  • Proteins: Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen and prothrombin
  • Glucose
  • Lipids
  • O2
  • CO2
  • Na+, Ca++, Mg+, FI-, I-, Cl-, K+, HCO3, Fe, AA, urea, lacticid acid,
  • Vitamin A, C
  • Enzymes
  • Hormones
14

pH level in blood for:

- Arteries

- Veins

  • Arteries pH = 7.4
  • Veins pH = 7.35
15

Blood's Functions:

  1. Transport
  2. Regulates
  3. Protects
16

Blood's transportantion help

  • Deliver oxygen
  • Transporting metabolic waste products
  • Transport hormones from the endocrine organs
  • Transport nutrients
17

Blood regulates by:

  • Maintaining temperature - absorbs and distributing heat throughout the body and the skin
  • Maintain normal pH - it acts as a buffer to prevent
  • Maintain adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system. Blood proteins prevent excessive fluid loss from the bloodstream into the tissue space.
18

Blood protects by:

  • Preventing blood loss
  • Preventing infections
19

Bad pH in blood

  • could jeopardize normal cell activities.
  • Blood also acts as a the reservoir for the body's alkaline reserve (bicarbonate ions).
20

Hematocrit is a...

  1. It is a blood test that measures a percentage of red blood cells found in whole blood
21

How does a Hematocrit Test work...

  1. Withdraw blood from your finger and place it in a testing tube.
  2. Centrifugate the tube test with blood sample
    1. This process separates the heaviest elements of blood from the lightest
    2. this elements are identified by their visual characteristics (see next questions)
22

The testing tube where blood is placed is called

Heporant Capillary Tube

23

A Heporant Capillary Tube has _____________ added, which is an ___________________.

  1. Heporin
  2. Anti-coagulant
24

The greater the Hematocrit, the ___________________ de friction between cells because of its __________________.

  1. greater
  2. viscosity
25
  • Water's Viscosity is

1.0

26
  • Blood's viscosity is

4.5 to 5.5

27

To force blood move through a tube (veins or arteries), _____________ is required to force blood to move through a given space in the tube.

PRESSURE

28
card image

Hematocrit Test ____________ blood. The pressure forces blood's elements to separate by _____________.

  1. Centrifugate
  2. Weight
29

Once the blood is separated, we can distinguish:

Top - PLASMA

Middle - Buffy coat

  • Platelets
  • White Blood Cells / Leukocytes

Bottom - Formed Elements (cells)

  • Buffy Coat
  • RBCs
    • Hemoglobin
      • Oxygen
30

Hematocrit Numbers measure...

  • Males = 42% of Formed Elements
  • Females = 38% of Formed Elements
31

What are Formed Elements

the elements that give blood its viscosity and are:

  1. Buffy Coat
    • Leukocytes (WBCs) = 1%
    • Platelates
  2. Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (contain No Nucleous)
    • 45% whole blood (in the hematocrit)
    • most dense components
32

______________ is necessary to form hemoglobin

Iron

33

________________are completely dedicated to their job of transporting respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

The erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBC)

34
  • _________________ is a protein that makes red blood cells RED.
  • It binds easily to oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • It is an excellent Buffer

Hemoglobin

35

Normal values for Hemoglobin are

Male Adults = 14-16.5 grams Hb/100 milliliters of blood (g/100 ml)

Female Adults = 12-15 g Hb/100 ml

36

In the Formed Elements, the amount of RBCs found per mm3 is

  • male 5.0 millions
  • female 4.5 millions
37

The formation of Blood Cells is called

Hematopoiesis

38

The formation of Red Blood Cells is called

Erythropoiesis

39

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are also called

Erythrocytes

40

Embryo Cells are formed in the

Liver and Spleen

41

Adult Cells are formed in

the bone marrow and Lymph

42

RBC life span

120 days

43

The spleen and liver remove the old ________________ from the system. The __________________ from RBCs is broken down by the liver into Fe, billiruben (which is oxidized into billiverden).

  • RBCs
  • Hemoglobin (Hb)q
44

The production of RBCs can be stimulated by the hormone _____________________, when a low _______ concentration causes the kidneys to produce this hormone.

  1. erythropoietin (EPO),
  2. O2
45

Erythropoietin causes the _______________ to increase production of RBCs

Bone Marrow

46
  • ___________ cells have No nuclei
  • Their major function is to carry Hemoglobin (which carry O2)
  • In a regular range blood has for:
    • male about _____________ of ______
    • female about ____________ of ______

Red Blood Cells

5 million mm3 of RBCs

4.5 million mm3 of RBCs

47

RBCs production starts when and where

  1. a Hematopoietic Stem Cells descendant called Myeloid Stem Cells transforms into Pro-erythroblast.
  2. Erythrocytes are continuously being produced in the red bone marrow of large bones, at a rate of about 2 million per second.
48

RBCs Pathway Step 2 -

Low O2 concentration causes the kidneys to produce into the blood ________________ a hormon.

Erythropoietin

49

Erythropoietin causes the _________________ to increase production of RBCs

Bone marrow

50

Cellular Oxygen deficiency generates that cells do not receive enough oxygen, this is called...

Hypoxia

51

The number of functional RBCs and/or Hemoglobin levels are low, therefore the blood has a low O2 carrying capacity - This imbalance causes ________________

Anemia

52

Anemia also causes

  • Lack of Fe
  • Lack of certain AA (for the protein globin)
  • Lack of vitamin B12
53

Vitamin ____________ helps RBCs formation by :

  1. when _________ is obtained from liver or meat; an intrinsic factor is secreted by the mucosa of the stomach which picks up the ____________ (extrinsic factor).
  2. Both go to the liver to form __________________ Factor.
  3. ___________________ factor goes to bone marrow to stimulate cell production.

B12

  1. B12
  2. B12
  3. B12
  4. Anti-Anemic Factor
  5. Anti-anemic
54

White Blood Cells are also called

Leukocytes

55

Leuko means

White

56

Leukocytes or WBCs main characteristics are...

  1. 1% of Blood Cells
  2. Nucleated
  3. Amiboid movement
  4. NO Hemoglobin (so do not carry O2)
  5. Carry out diapedesis
  6. 5000 - 10,000 /mm3 of blood
  7. Life Span 2-300 days
57

WBCs could be destroy by

  • Microbres
  • Spleen and liver
  • Bone marrow
  • Lymph nodes
58

There are two major categories of Leukocytes on the basis of Structural and chemical characteristics.

  1. Granulocytes, which contain obvious membran-bound cytoplasmic granules
  2. Agranulocytes lack obvious granuels.
59

Granulocytes are:

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Eosinophil
  3. Basophil
60

A-granular are

  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Monocytes
61

In order from most abundant to least abundant, list the different types of Leukocytes:

  1. Neutrophils 65%
  2. Lymphocytes 25%
  3. Monocytes 6%
  4. Eosinophil 3%
  5. Basophil .5 to 1%
62

Neutrophil's Functions 65%

  1. LS 6 hours to a few days
  2. phagocytic
  3. Release Lysozyme (enzyme)
63

Lymphocyte's Functions 25%

  1. hours to years
  2. Play LARGE role in immunity
  3. Become PHAGOCYTIC macrophages at the site of inflamation
  4. Attack vía Antibodies
64

Monocyte's Functions 6%

  1. Life Span - 2-3 days
  2. Nucleus U Kidney-shaped
  3. Gray-blue cytoplasm
  4. diameter 14-24u
65

Eosonophil's Functions

  1. Life Span of 5 days
  2. Kill parasitic worms
  3. Destroy Antigen-antibody complex
  4. Associated with allergies
  5. Found in extremely large numbers when the body is infected with parasites.
66

Basophi's Functions .5 to 1%

  1. Liberates Heparin into the blood to prevent clotting
  2. In large numbers at the site of inflamation - Releases histiamine as a mediator of inflamation
  3. also involved in allergies reactions
67

What does PHAGOCYTOSIS means

Cell Eating

68

What does BACTERIOLYSIS mean

Bacteria bursting

69

Phagogenes destroy through...

phagocytosis and bacteriolysis.

70

Chemotaxes

Are the chemical substances that cause WBCs to move toward and away from the source.

71

Thrombocytes have another name

Platelates

72

Thrombocytes characteristics

  • Originate in Bone marrow most of the time
  • Life Span 1 week
  • NO Nucleus
  • Very small 2-4u in diameter o oval disk
  • 300,000/mm3
73

Thrombocytes form

Formed from Megakaryocytes, which fragment while still in the bone marrow

74

Thrombocytes contain

thromboplastin to start the clotting mechanism

75

Plasma

  • The liquid part of blood
  • straw colored
  • whole blood minus the cells
  • 91% water
  • The other 10% isProteins, gas, electrolytes, waste products.
76

Plasma 10% include:

  • Proteins - Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen and Prothrombin, Enzymes and Hormones
  • Lipids, AA,
  • Electrolites - Ca++, Na+, K+, Mg+, Fl-, I-, Cl
  • Vitamins: A, C.
  • Gases - O2, CO2
  • Waste products : Urea, lactid acid
77

Serum

Is the plasma minus the clotting factors.

P.e. the fluid expressed from a clot.

78

Antigen

A foreign protein (like a bacteria)

79

Antibody

special proteins produced by the body that inactivate antigens.

80

Antigen-Antibody Response

  1. An antigen enters the body and reacts with ______________
  2. The B lymphocytes become ______________ , which are capable of producing ______________, which will attach to the antigen.
  3. Antibodies are antigen ____________.
  1. B Lypmphocyte
  2. Plasma cells
  3. Antibodies
  4. Specific
81

Blood Clotting:

  1. Vessel cut or ruptured - vessel contract to reduce _____________
  2. Platelets attempt to plug ________ in the vessel, when they contact the ____________. ____________ become sticky and secrete ______, which perpetuates the ____________
  3. Blood _____ forms
  4. It growth of ___________ tissue into ______ to close hole in the vessel permeability
  1. Flow
  2. the opening
  3. collagen fibers
  4. Fibers
  5. ADP
  6. Cycle
  7. clot
  8. Fibrous
  9. Clot
82

Coagulation

is the process of clotting

83

Coagulation Extrensic Pathway

It is caused from damaged tissue

84

Coagulation Extrinsic Pathway

  1. An extract from the damage tissue, tissue thromboplastin, is released into the blood.
  2. Tissue thromboplastin reacts with Ca++ ions to form extrensic thromboplastin
  3. Extrensi thromboplastin and several factors react to form prothrombin
  4. Prothrombin reacts with Ca++ to become thrombin
  5. Thrombin reacts with Ca++ to catalyze the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to fibrin
85

Intrensic Pathway

The blood itself is traumatized

  1. The endohelial lining and platlets are both negatively charged and repel each other, therefore they don't stick together.
  2. Platlets will stick to a rupture lining
  3. Platlets release coagulation factors & form inttrensic thromboplastin
  4. Intrensic thromboplastin helps to convert prothrombin into thrombin
86

Fibrinolysis

The enzymatic break down of the fibrin into blood

87

Plaque

Plaque that accumulates on the inner walls of your arteries is made from various substances that circulate in your blood. These include calcium, fat, cholesterol, cellular waste, and fibrin, a material involved in blood clotting. In response to plaque buildup, cells in your artery walls multiply and secrete additional substances that can worsen the state of clogged arteries.

88

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is the process of a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forming in a blood vessel. This clot can block or obstruct blood flow in the affected area, as well as cause serious complications if the clot moves to a crucial part of the circulatory system, such as the brain or the lungs.

89

Embolus

It is normal for the body to produce clotting factors like platelets and fibrin when a blood vessel is injured, to prevent an excessive loss of blood from the body. If this effect is over productive it can obstruct the flow of blood and form an embolus that moves around the blood stream.

90

Blood Group Types study

  • Red Blood Cells
  • Blood Type Antigens
  • Blood Type Antibodies
91

Blood's Antigens

is a protein on the surface of the RBCs

92

Blood's Antigens are also known as

Agglutinins

93

Blood's Antibodies

is a protein in the plasma of the blood

94

Rh Factors are

an antigen on the surface of the RBCs

95

Rh Symbols depend on

If the blood ...

has the Rh Factor (+)

or

Do not have Rh Factor (-)

96

If Rh- is pregnant with a fetus with Rh+

Then will produce Rh+ antibodies

97

Hemolytic Deseas of the new born or

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

  • Effects 1 out of 30 births
  • it is the result of an Rh- mother having an Rh+ fetus
  • Must receive Anti-Rh-Gamma-2globin Antibody preparation
98

Anti-Rh-Gamma-2globin Antibody preparation is also known as

RhoGam

99

Known as Cardiac Muscle or Myocardium, the ____________ pumb and lies in the ________________.

  1. Heart
  2. Mediastinum
100

Outside, the heart is surrounded of specific layers:

1- _______________ is a serous membrane sac surrounding the heart, also called ___________________ sac

  1. Parietal Pericardium
  2. Pericardial Sac
101

The serous inner layer of the Pericardial Sac produces ________________

serous fluid

102

The inflammation of the parietal pericardium is called...

Pericarditis

103

The Fibrous outer layer of the Pericardial Sac produces____________ and is attached to:

  • ___________

It provides :__________, _________, ___________

  1. Fibrous CT
  2. Attached to:
    • blood vessels, sternum, diaphragm ,thoracic wall
  3. Support, protection and prevents over-distension
104

The serous tissue and mesothelium of Simple squamous epithelium covering the heart is known as ___________ or ________________

  1. Epicardium
  2. Visceral Pericardium
105

Pericardial Sac has 2 layers:

  1. Serous inner layer
  2. Fibrous outer layer
106
card image

The space between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium is called

Pericardial Cavity

107

The Serus Fluid is located in

the Pericardial Cavity

108

This layer covers the heart and is made of serous tissue and mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium)

Visceral Pericardium or EPICARDIUM

109

Myocardium

is the Cardiac Muscle

110

Endothelial lining continuous with the blood vessels of the heart

Endocardium

111

2 Atria + 2 Ventricles form

the Chambers of the heart

112
card image

The heart lies in the __________________; has a tip named _____________ and a botom named ________________.

  1. Mediastium
  2. apex
  3. base
113

The atria receive blood _____________ the heart

Into

114

The ventricles pump blood ___________________ of the heart

Out

115

Blood Flow

1- starts with __________________ and _____________________ which pump blood into the heart

1 - Superior Vena Cava

2 - Inferior Vena Cava

116

2 and 3 - Blood enters into the ___________________ which uses the _____________ Valves to send blood into the ______ventricles.

2- Right Atrium

3- Tricuspid Valve

4-Right Ventricle

117

4- The _____ ventricle contracts to pump blood out through the __________________ ______________ valves.

4 Right Ventricle

5- Pulmonary Semilunar valves

118

5- Pulmonary _____________ valves let blood go through the ______________________, which send blood through both ________________ _____________________.

5- Semilunar

6- Pulmonary Trunk

7- Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries

119

6 - _______________ receive blood for gas exchange, and they resend oyigenated blood back to the heart through the _________ _______________ ______________

8 - Lungs

9- Four Pulmonary Veins

120

7- Pumonary ____________ pump blood back to the heart to deposit it into the _____________ _______________-

9- Veins

10- Left Atrium

121

8- _________ Atrium uses the ______________ valves to move blood from the Atrium to the __________ _______________

10 - Left Atrium

11- Bicuspid Valve

12 - Left Ventricle

122

When left ventricle contracts, pushes blood out of the heart through the ____________________ valves

13 - Aortic Semilunar Valve

123

__________ Semilunar Valves pump blood out through the ____________ to the body

13- Aortic

14- Aorta

124
card image

Hearts have their own self contained pacemaker for their conduction system. This is:

  1. Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
125

A Conduction System consists of

  • A self contained pacemaker for the heart
  • Noncontractile cardiac cells specialized to initiate and distribute impulses throughout the heart, so that it depolarizes and contracts in an orderly, sequential manner.
126

Conduction System Process is

  • Sinoidal Node (SA Node)
  • Atrialventricular Node (AV Node)
  • Atrialventricular Bundle (AV Bundle)
  • Bundle Branches
  • Myoconduction Fibers (Purkinje)
127

What is a Node

a mass of conducting cells

128

What is EKG

  • Also known as ECG or Electrocardiogram
  • is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart
  • Represents a COMPLETE Cardiac Cycle
129

Cardiac Cycle

  • P Wave - Both Atria Contract - Atrial Depolarization
  • QRS Segment - Ventricle Contract - Ventricular Depolarization
  • T Wave - Ventricle Relax - Ventricular Repolarization
130

Heart Murmur occurs

when a leaking valve

131

Heart is a muscle which need to have its own...

  • blood supply with a...
  • circular system with...
  • Pressure
132

Coronary Circulation

is the responsible system for the blood supply to the myocardio

133

Blood supply requires the right amount of ______________ to get blood from one chamber to other, and to move blood through vessel.

Pressure

134

Ventricular ____________ during contractions must overcome Atrial ____________ before the aortic or pulmonary __________ __________ will open.

  1. Pressure
  2. Pressure
  3. Semilunar Valve
135

The blockage of a coronary artery circulation can be serious and sometimes fatal. _______________ (chocked chest) is thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium.

Angina Pectoris

136

Prolongated coronary blockage is far more serous because it can lead to a ___________________

Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Heart Attack

137

Conduction System

A Self contained pacemaker for the heart

138
  • Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
  1. Known as Pacemaker
  2. Impulse Generated
  3. Atrial excitation begins
139
  • Atrialventricular Node (AV Node)
  • Impulse Delayed
140
  • Atrialventricular Bundle (AV Bundle) and
  • Bundle Branches
  • Impulse passes to heart apex;
  • Ventricular exitation begins
141
  • Myoconduction Fibers (Purkinje)
  • Ventricular excitation complete
142

Systemic Circulation Process

  1. Left Ventricular
  2. Aorta
  3. To the body
  4. SVC and IVC
  5. Right Atrium
143

Pulmonary Circulation

  1. Right Ventricular
  2. Pulmonary Trunk
  3. Rt and Lf Pulmonary Arteries
  4. Lungs
  5. Pulmonary Veins
  6. Left Atrium
144

Coronary Circulation

  • Right Coronary Artery next to Left Coronary artery
  • From Left Coronary Artery
  • Anterior Interventricular Artery and Circumflex Artery
  • Venous Uptake into Coronary Sinus
  • Rt Atrium
145

Hepatic Portal Circulation

  1. Venous Uptake from :
    1. Stomach
    2. Small Intestine
    3. Large Intestine
  2. Hepatic Portal Vein
  3. Sinusoids of the Liver
  4. Hepatic Vains
  5. IVC
146

Is the amount of blood pumped out by Lt. Ventricle into the Aorta per minute

Cardiac Output

147

To calculate Cardiac Output (CO) it is needed:

  • Stroke Volume (SV) - The volume of blood pumped out of the Lt Ventricle PER contraction
  • Heart Rate (HR) - The number of heart beats per minute
148

The average stroke volume aprox. per contraction

70 ml

149

The average of heart rate aprox.

75 beats per minute

150

Formula for Cardiac Output

CO = SV * HR

CO = 70 ml * 75 bpm

CO = 5250 ml/min or 5.25 l/min

151

The importance of a Cariovascular Center basic Rhythm maybe modified

The sympathetitc nervous Sys. (the accelerator) increases both the rate and the force of the heartbeat.

Parasympathetic Nervous Sys. (the brakes) slows the heart.

152

Cardiovascular Center is Located in __________________

in the medulla oblongata

153

Cardiovascular Center receives

input from sensory receptors and higher brain centers

154

Chemoreceptors

monitor chemical changes in the blood

155

Baroreceptors

Monitor blood pressure in major veins and arteries p.e.

  • Carotid Arteries -------> Carotid Sinus Reflex
  • Aortic Arch -------> Aortic Reflex
  • SVC and IVC -------> Right Heart Reflex
156
  • Carotid Arteries -------> Carotid Sinus Reflex
  • Aortic Arch -------> Aortic Reflex
  • SVC and IVC -------> Right Heart Refle
  • Are stimulated by the blood pressure stretching the walls of the arteries.
  • Impulses are sent until the blood pressure returns to normal
157

Cardiac Accelerator Nerves

Consists of sympathetic nerve fibers which extend from the cardiovascular center of the medulla to the spinal cord in the thoracic region.

  • Innervate SA Node, AV Node and Myocardium
  • Their fibers release Norepinephrine
158

Cardiac Accelerator Nerves effects are

  • Increased heart rate
  • Increase strength of contraction
159

Consists of Parasympathetic Nerve fibers which extend from the medula.

  • This fibers innervate the SA Node and the AV Node
  • Their fibers release acetylcholine

Vagus Nerve (X)

160

Parasympathetic Cardiac Inhibitor effects are

  1. Decreased heart rate
  2. decreased strength of contractions
161

Examples: High Blood Pressure

Impulses from the baroreceptors are sent to the cardiovascular center to stimulate the Vagus (X) nerves and inhibit the cardiac accelerator nerves.

The result is a slowing of the force and rate of the heart which allows more time for the excess amount of blood on the arterial side to drain thereby lowering the systolic blood pressure

162

Example Low Blood Pressure

Impulses from the baroreceptors are sent to the cardiovascular center to stimulate the cardiac accelerator nerves and inhibit the vagus (X) nerve.

The result is an increase in the force and rate of the heart which sends more blood volume to the arterial side thereby increasing the systolic blood pressure.

163

Chemical regulation of the heart, for example

Epinephrine, released due to fear, stress, and anger or anxiety.

Thyroid hormones increase excitability of SA Node which causes heart rate and strength of contraction to increase

164

Temperature

Heat causes AV Node to discharge faster; cold has a reverse effect

165

Age, gender and fitness

Also effect the rate of the heart

166

Cardiovascular System

A closed circulatory system of vessels containing blood.