166 notecards = 42 pages (4 cards per page)
Cardiovascular System study...
It is considered
____________'s characteristics :
pH of Blood is
75.35 to 7.45
Amount of blood for :
a) Amount of blood cells in blood
- 99% RB's
- 1% WBC's)
Range of Plasma in Blood
Nutrients in Plasma are:
pH level in blood for:
Blood's transportantion help
Blood regulates by:
Blood protects by:
Bad pH in blood
Hematocrit is a...
How does a Hematocrit Test work...
The testing tube where blood is placed is called
Heporant Capillary Tube
A Heporant Capillary Tube has _____________ added, which is an ___________________.
The greater the Hematocrit, the ___________________ de friction between cells because of its __________________.
4.5 to 5.5
To force blood move through a tube (veins or arteries), _____________ is required to force blood to move through a given space in the tube.
Hematocrit Test ____________ blood. The pressure forces blood's elements to separate by _____________.
Once the blood is separated, we can distinguish:
Top - PLASMA
Middle - Buffy coat
Bottom - Formed Elements (cells)
Hematocrit Numbers measure...
What are Formed Elements
the elements that give blood its viscosity and are:
______________ is necessary to form hemoglobin
________________are completely dedicated to their job of transporting respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
The erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Normal values for Hemoglobin are
Male Adults = 14-16.5 grams Hb/100 milliliters of blood (g/100 ml)
Female Adults = 12-15 g Hb/100 ml
In the Formed Elements, the amount of RBCs found per mm3 is
The formation of Blood Cells is called
The formation of Red Blood Cells is called
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are also called
Embryo Cells are formed in the
Liver and Spleen
Adult Cells are formed in
the bone marrow and Lymph
RBC life span
The spleen and liver remove the old ________________ from the system. The __________________ from RBCs is broken down by the liver into Fe, billiruben (which is oxidized into billiverden).
The production of RBCs can be stimulated by the hormone _____________________, when a low _______ concentration causes the kidneys to produce this hormone.
Erythropoietin causes the _______________ to increase production of RBCs
Red Blood Cells
5 million mm3 of RBCs
4.5 million mm3 of RBCs
RBCs production starts when and where
RBCs Pathway Step 2 -
Low O2 concentration causes the kidneys to produce into the blood ________________ a hormon.
Erythropoietin causes the _________________ to increase production of RBCs
Cellular Oxygen deficiency generates that cells do not receive enough oxygen, this is called...
The number of functional RBCs and/or Hemoglobin levels are low, therefore the blood has a low O2 carrying capacity - This imbalance causes ________________
Anemia also causes
Vitamin ____________ helps RBCs formation by :
White Blood Cells are also called
Leukocytes or WBCs main characteristics are...
WBCs could be destroy by
There are two major categories of Leukocytes on the basis of Structural and chemical characteristics.
In order from most abundant to least abundant, list the different types of Leukocytes:
Neutrophil's Functions 65%
Lymphocyte's Functions 25%
Monocyte's Functions 6%
Basophi's Functions .5 to 1%
What does PHAGOCYTOSIS means
What does BACTERIOLYSIS mean
Phagogenes destroy through...
phagocytosis and bacteriolysis.
Are the chemical substances that cause WBCs to move toward and away from the source.
Thrombocytes have another name
Formed from Megakaryocytes, which fragment while still in the bone marrow
thromboplastin to start the clotting mechanism
Plasma 10% include:
Is the plasma minus the clotting factors.
P.e. the fluid expressed from a clot.
A foreign protein (like a bacteria)
special proteins produced by the body that inactivate antigens.
is the process of clotting
Coagulation Extrensic Pathway
It is caused from damaged tissue
Coagulation Extrinsic Pathway
The blood itself is traumatized
The enzymatic break down of the fibrin into blood
Plaque that accumulates on the inner walls of your arteries is made from various substances that circulate in your blood. These include calcium, fat, cholesterol, cellular waste, and fibrin, a material involved in blood clotting. In response to plaque buildup, cells in your artery walls multiply and secrete additional substances that can worsen the state of clogged arteries.
Thrombosis is the process of a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forming in a blood vessel. This clot can block or obstruct blood flow in the affected area, as well as cause serious complications if the clot moves to a crucial part of the circulatory system, such as the brain or the lungs.
It is normal for the body to produce clotting factors like platelets and fibrin when a blood vessel is injured, to prevent an excessive loss of blood from the body. If this effect is over productive it can obstruct the flow of blood and form an embolus that moves around the blood stream.
Blood Group Types study
is a protein on the surface of the RBCs
Blood's Antigens are also known as
is a protein in the plasma of the blood
Rh Factors are
an antigen on the surface of the RBCs
Rh Symbols depend on
If the blood ...
has the Rh Factor (+)
Do not have Rh Factor (-)
If Rh- is pregnant with a fetus with Rh+
Then will produce Rh+ antibodies
Hemolytic Deseas of the new born or
Anti-Rh-Gamma-2globin Antibody preparation is also known as
Known as Cardiac Muscle or Myocardium, the ____________ pumb and lies in the ________________.
Outside, the heart is surrounded of specific layers:
1- _______________ is a serous membrane sac surrounding the heart, also called ___________________ sac
The serous inner layer of the Pericardial Sac produces ________________
The inflammation of the parietal pericardium is called...
The Fibrous outer layer of the Pericardial Sac produces____________ and is attached to:
It provides :__________, _________, ___________
The serous tissue and mesothelium of Simple squamous epithelium covering the heart is known as ___________ or ________________
Pericardial Sac has 2 layers:
The space between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium is called
The Serus Fluid is located in
the Pericardial Cavity
This layer covers the heart and is made of serous tissue and mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
Visceral Pericardium or EPICARDIUM
is the Cardiac Muscle
Endothelial lining continuous with the blood vessels of the heart
2 Atria + 2 Ventricles form
the Chambers of the heart
The heart lies in the __________________; has a tip named _____________ and a botom named ________________.
The atria receive blood _____________ the heart
The ventricles pump blood ___________________ of the heart
1- starts with __________________ and _____________________ which pump blood into the heart
1 - Superior Vena Cava
2 - Inferior Vena Cava
2 and 3 - Blood enters into the ___________________ which uses the _____________ Valves to send blood into the ______ventricles.
2- Right Atrium
3- Tricuspid Valve
4- The _____ ventricle contracts to pump blood out through the __________________ ______________ valves.
4 Right Ventricle
5- Pulmonary Semilunar valves
5- Pulmonary _____________ valves let blood go through the ______________________, which send blood through both ________________ _____________________.
6- Pulmonary Trunk
7- Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries
6 - _______________ receive blood for gas exchange, and they resend oyigenated blood back to the heart through the _________ _______________ ______________
8 - Lungs
9- Four Pulmonary Veins
7- Pumonary ____________ pump blood back to the heart to deposit it into the _____________ _______________-
10- Left Atrium
8- _________ Atrium uses the ______________ valves to move blood from the Atrium to the __________ _______________
10 - Left Atrium
11- Bicuspid Valve
12 - Left Ventricle
When left ventricle contracts, pushes blood out of the heart through the ____________________ valves
13 - Aortic Semilunar Valve
__________ Semilunar Valves pump blood out through the ____________ to the body
Hearts have their own self contained pacemaker for their conduction system. This is:
A Conduction System consists of
Conduction System Process is
What is a Node
a mass of conducting cells
What is EKG
Heart Murmur occurs
when a leaking valve
Heart is a muscle which need to have its own...
is the responsible system for the blood supply to the myocardio
Blood supply requires the right amount of ______________ to get blood from one chamber to other, and to move blood through vessel.
Ventricular ____________ during contractions must overcome Atrial ____________ before the aortic or pulmonary __________ __________ will open.
The blockage of a coronary artery circulation can be serious and sometimes fatal. _______________ (chocked chest) is thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium.
Prolongated coronary blockage is far more serous because it can lead to a ___________________
Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Heart Attack
A Self contained pacemaker for the heart
Systemic Circulation Process
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Is the amount of blood pumped out by Lt. Ventricle into the Aorta per minute
To calculate Cardiac Output (CO) it is needed:
The average stroke volume aprox. per contraction
The average of heart rate aprox.
75 beats per minute
Formula for Cardiac Output
CO = SV * HR
CO = 70 ml * 75 bpm
CO = 5250 ml/min or 5.25 l/min
The importance of a Cariovascular Center basic Rhythm maybe modified
The sympathetitc nervous Sys. (the accelerator) increases both the rate and the force of the heartbeat.
Parasympathetic Nervous Sys. (the brakes) slows the heart.
Cardiovascular Center is Located in __________________
in the medulla oblongata
Cardiovascular Center receives
input from sensory receptors and higher brain centers
monitor chemical changes in the blood
Monitor blood pressure in major veins and arteries p.e.
Cardiac Accelerator Nerves
Consists of sympathetic nerve fibers which extend from the cardiovascular center of the medulla to the spinal cord in the thoracic region.
Cardiac Accelerator Nerves effects are
Consists of Parasympathetic Nerve fibers which extend from the medula.
Vagus Nerve (X)
Parasympathetic Cardiac Inhibitor effects are
Examples: High Blood Pressure
Impulses from the baroreceptors are sent to the cardiovascular center to stimulate the Vagus (X) nerves and inhibit the cardiac accelerator nerves.
The result is a slowing of the force and rate of the heart which allows more time for the excess amount of blood on the arterial side to drain thereby lowering the systolic blood pressure
Example Low Blood Pressure
Impulses from the baroreceptors are sent to the cardiovascular center to stimulate the cardiac accelerator nerves and inhibit the vagus (X) nerve.
The result is an increase in the force and rate of the heart which sends more blood volume to the arterial side thereby increasing the systolic blood pressure.
Chemical regulation of the heart, for example
Epinephrine, released due to fear, stress, and anger or anxiety.
Thyroid hormones increase excitability of SA Node which causes heart rate and strength of contraction to increase
Heat causes AV Node to discharge faster; cold has a reverse effect
Age, gender and fitness
Also effect the rate of the heart
A closed circulatory system of vessels containing blood.